Levels of selenium, zinc, copper, and antioxidant enzyme activity in patients with leukemia.Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006 Winter; 114(1-3):41-53.BT
Essential elements, mainly selenium and zinc, were involved in protection against oxidative stress in cells. Oxidation could lead to the formation of free radicals that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including leukemia. Leukemia is a neoplastic disease that is susceptible to antioxidant enzyme and essential elements alterations. This study was undertaken to examine the levels of essential elements, antioxidant enzymes activities, and their relationships with different types of leukemia. Serum selenium, zinc, and copper concentrations, red blood cell glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, plasma Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) activities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were determined in 49 patients with different types of leukemia before initial treatment. Serum selenium and zinc concentrations were lower in leukemia patients than those of controls (p<0.01). Serum copper concentration was higher in leukemia patients than that of controls (p<0.01). The activities GPx and Cu-Zn SOD were significantly increased in leukemia patients, especially with acute leukemia (AL), acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), and acute nonlymphoid leukemia (ANLL) (p<0.05), whereas no difference was found between those of chronic myelogenous leukemia and the controls. The levels of LPO were normal as controls. Serum selenium concentration was not correlated with GPx, and serum levels of zinc and copper were not related to Cu-Zn SOD. Serum zinc levels had a negative correlation with the absolute peripheral blast cells, whereas serum copper had a positive correlation with the absolute peripheral blast cells. Increased GPx and Cu-Zn SOD activities and normal levels of LPO, which were a protective responses, were an indicator of mild oxidative stress; it might indicate that the essentials elements alterations in leukemia patients were mostly dependent on tumor activity. Changes of their levels demonstrated that there are low selenium, zinc, and high copper status in leukemia patients. The decrease of plasma zinc and increase of the Cu/Zn ratio could be the index that showed an unfavorable prognosis of acute leukemia.