Tunga penetrans: a stowaway from around the world.J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007 Jan; 21(1):11-6.JE
Tungiasis is a cutaneous ectoparasitic infestation by the female sand flea Tunga penetrans. It is predominantly a health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, Latin America and South America. However, increasing numbers of returning travellers, immigrants, and adopted children are also affected in non-tropical countries. It is a cause of substantial morbidity, with prevalence rates as high as 76% in certain endemic areas. To date, the early extraction of the flea is still the first line therapy.