Osseointegrated implants with pendulum springs for maxillary molar distalization: a cephalometric study.Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2007 Jan; 131(1):16-26.AJ
Maxillary molar distalization is a common treatment approach for patients with Class II malocclusions who do not require extractions. Despite the many advantages of pendulum appliances, the maxillary incisors and premolars tend to shift mesially as the maxillary molars move distally. The purpose of this study was to investigate anchorage loss in patients treated with palatal osseointegrated implants combined with pendulum springs.
Pretreatment and posttreatment lateral cephalometric films of 30 consecutively treated patients were examined. One group (n = 15) had been treated with conventional pendulum appliances, and the other group (n = 15) was treated with palatal osseointegrated implants combined with pendulum springs.
In the pendulum group, significant distal tipping of the maxillary first molars and mesial tipping of the maxillary premolars were noted. Distalization of the maxillary first molars, mesialization of the maxillary first premolars, and proclination of the maxillary left central incisor were significant in the linear measurements. In the implant group, the distal tipping of the maxillary first molars and first premolars and the increases in SNGoGn, FMA, Na Me, and Na ANS were significant. Intergroup comparisons showed that changes in the maxillary first premolars, maxillary central incisors, and vertical measurements were significant.
The use of palatal osseointegrated implants is reliable and provides absolute anchorage.