Effects of B chromosomes and supernumerary segments on morphometric traits and adult fitness components in the grasshopper, Dichroplus elongatus (Acrididae).J Evol Biol. 2007 Jan; 20(1):249-59.JE
The South American species, Dichroplus elongatus, is polymorphic for B chromosomes and supernumerary segments in chromosome pairs M6 (SS6), S9 (SS9) and S10 (SS10). Both forms of supernumerary heterochromatin shape chiasma frequency and distribution and B chromosomes also affect male fertility. Here, we analysed the effects of these polymorphisms on morphometric traits (total, 3rd femur, 3rd tibia, thorax and tegmen lengths) and several adult fitness components, including male and female mating success, and female reproductive potential. B chromosomes tend to decrease, and SS6 segments to increase the body size of carriers. The analysis of reproductive potential suggested that B chromosome carrying females have higher numbers of embryos per clutch and ovarioles per ovary. The uni- and multivariate analysis of mating success revealed that sexual selection favours larger individuals of both sexes and males with standard karyotype. B chromosomes may have accumulation mechanisms, which involve preferential transmission of B chromosomes to germ cells or functional gametes. The maintenance of Bs might be explained by interactions among accumulation mechanisms and trade-offs between detrimental and favourable effects on different fitness components.