Evaluation of a low-cost 3D sound system for immersive virtual reality training systems.IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph. 2007 Mar-Apr; 13(2):204-12.IT
Since Head Mounted Displays (HMD), datagloves, tracking systems, and powerful computer graphics resources are nowadays in an affordable price range, the usage of PC-based "Virtual Training Systems" becomes very attractive. However, due to the limited field of view of HMD devices, additional modalities have to be provided to benefit from 3D environments. A 3D sound simulation can improve the capabilities of VR systems dramatically. Unfortunately, realistic 3D sound simulations are expensive and demand a tremendous amount of computational power to calculate reverberation, occlusion, and obstruction effects. To use 3D sound in a PC-based training system as a way to direct and guide trainees to observe specific events in 3D space, a cheaper alternative has to be provided, so that a broader range of applications can take advantage of this modality. To address this issue, we focus in this paper on the evaluation of a low-cost 3D sound simulation that is capable of providing traceable 3D sound events. We describe our experimental system setup using conventional stereo headsets in combination with a tracked HMD device and present our results with regard to precision, speed, and used signal types for localizing simulated sound events in a virtual training environment.