Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease--using the ANNA Standards and Practice Guidelines to improve care. Part 1: the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease: the risk factors and complications that contribute to cardiovascular disease.Nephrol Nurs J. 2006 Nov-Dec; 33(6):666-74; quiz 675-6.NN
Recent National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative Guidelines for cardiovascular disease recommend that patients with chronic kidney disease be considered at highest risk for development of cardiovascular disease and that cardiac risk factor reduction begin with diagnosis of chronic kidney disease. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease include both traditional and nontraditional renal-related cardiac risk factors. The ANNA Nephrology Nursing Standards of Practice and Guidelines for Care can provide the foundation for planning care to patients with CKD and not only slow the progression of CKD but reduce exposure to cardiac risk factors. This article, on the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease and the risk factors and complications that contribute to cardiovascular disease, is the first in a series of three articles on the risk factors and complications related to chronic kidney disease and its impact on cardiovascular disease.