Direct extraction of penicillin G and derivatives from aqueous samples using a stoichiometrically imprinted polymer.Anal Chem. 2007 Jan 15; 79(2):695-701.AC
A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) prepared using penicillin G procaine salt as the template (PENGp) and a stoichiometric quantity of urea-based functional monomer to target the single oxyanionic species in the template molecule has been applied to the development of a molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) procedure for the selective preconcentration of beta-lactam antibiotics (BLAs) from environmental water samples. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the polymer have been evaluated to achieve the selective preconcentration of the antibiotics from aqueous samples and to reduce nonspecific interactions. This resulted in an MISPE-HPLC method allowing the direct extraction of the analytes from the sample matrix with a selective wash using just 10% (v/v) organic solvent. On the basis of UV detection only, the method showed good recoveries and precision, ranging between 93% and 100% (RSD 3.8-8.9%, n = 3) for tap water and between 90% and 100% (RSD 4.2-9.1%, n = 3) for river water fortified with 30 or 60 microg L-1 (50 mL samples) penicillin G, penicillin V, nafcillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, and dicloxacillin, suggesting that this MIP can be successfully applied to the direct preconcentration of BLAs in environmental water samples.