Dose- and time-dependent effects of sulfur mustard on antioxidant system in liver and brain of rat.Toxicology. 2007 Feb 28; 231(1):30-9.T
This study investigates the dose- and time-dependent effects of sulfur mustard (SM) on antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in liver and brain of rats. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were randomly divided into eight groups and treated as follows: group 1 as control and groups 2-8 as experimental groups that received SM (1-80 mg/kg) through intraperitoneal injection. Rats were killed after 2, 7 and 14 days of exposure. SM dose-dependently decreased body weight. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in liver were significantly increased at SM doses lower than 10 mg/kg after 2 and 7 days of exposure. However, the recovery of these parameters was observed after 14 days. At these concentrations, no significant change in glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were observed. At doses higher than 10 mg/kg, SM significantly decreased SOD, CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and GST activities in liver and brain and decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity in liver, which was associated with a depletion of GSH and increased MDA level. Present data indicate that the effect of SM is dose- and time-dependent and at higher doses (>10 mg/kg) induces an oxidative stress response by depleting the antioxidant defense systems and increasing lipid peroxidation in liver and brain of rats.