Vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in outpatients with noncholestatic chronic liver disease.Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Apr; 5(4):513-20.CG
BACKGROUND & AIMS
The liver plays a central role in vitamin D metabolism. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and type of vitamin D-parathyroid hormone (PTH) disturbance in ambulatory patients with noncholestatic chronic liver disease (CLD) and its relationship with disease severity and liver function.
We studied 100 consecutive outpatients (63 men, 37 women; mean age, 49.0 +/- 12.1 [SD] y) with noncholestatic CLD caused by alcohol (n = 40), hepatitis C (n = 38), hepatitis B (n = 12), autoimmune hepatitis (n = 4), hemochromatosis (n = 4), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (n = 2); 51 patients had cirrhosis. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), PTH, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, creatinine, and liver function tests were determined.
Serum 25(OH)D levels were inadequate in 91 patients: vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L) was found in 68 patients and vitamin D insufficiency (50-80 nmol/L) was found in 23 patients. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (serum PTH, >6.8 pmol/L) was present in 16 patients. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher in cirrhotic vs noncirrhotic patients (86.3% vs 49.0%; P = .0001). In Child-Pugh class C patients, 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower than in class A patients (22.7 +/- 10.0 nmol/L vs 45.8 +/- 16.8 nmol/L; P < .001). Serum 25(OH)D independently correlated with international normalized ratio (negatively; P = .018) and serum albumin (positively; P = .007). Serum 25(OH)D levels of less than 25 nmol/L predicted coagulopathy, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoalbuminemia, increased alkaline phosphatase, and anemia and thrombocytopenia.
Vitamin D inadequacy is common in noncholestatic CLD and correlates with disease severity, but secondary hyperparathyroidism is relatively infrequent. Management of CLD should include assessment of vitamin D status in all patients and replacement when necessary.