High-amylose corn exhibits better antioxidant activity than typical and waxy genotypes.J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jan 24; 55(2):291-8.JA
The consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains rich in antioxidative phytochemicals is associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, coronary heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, cataract, and aged-related functional decline. For example, phenolic acids are among the main antioxidative phytochemicals in grains that have been shown to be beneficial to human health. Corn (Zea mays L.) is a major staple food in several parts of the world; thus, the antioxidant activity of several corn types was evaluated. The 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl free radical (DPPH*) scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble substances (ACL), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and phenolic acid compositions of typical and mutant genotypes (typical-1, waxy, typical-2, and high-amylose) were investigated. The DPPH* scavenging activity at 60 min was 34.39-44.51% in methanol extracts and 60.41-67.26% in HCl/methanol (1/99, v/v) extracts of corn. The DPPH* scavenging activity of alkaline hydrolysates of corn ranged from 48.63 to 64.85%. The TPC ranged from 0.67 to 1.02 g and from 0.91 to 2.15 g of ferulic acid equiv/kg of corn in methanol and HCl/methanol extracts, respectively. The TPC of alkaline hydrolysates ranged from 2.74 to 6.27 g of ferulic acid equiv/kg of corn. The ACL values were 0.41-0.80 and 0.84-1.59 g of Trolox equiv/kg of corn in methanol and HCl/methanol extracts, respectively. The ORAC values were 10.57-12.47 and 18.76-24.92 g of Trolox equiv/kg of corn in methanol and HCl/methanol extracts, respectively. ORAC values of alkaline hydrolysates ranged from 42.85 to 68.31 g of Trolox equiv/kg of corn. The composition of phenolic acids in alkaline hydrolysates of corn was p-hydroxybenzoic acid (5.08-10.6 mg/kg), vanillic acid (3.25-14.71 mg/kg), caffeic acid (2.32-25.73 mg/kg), syringic acid (12.37-24.48 mg/kg), p-coumaric acid (97.87-211.03 mg/kg), ferulic acid (1552.48-2969.10 mg/kg), and o-coumaric acid (126.53-575.87 mg/kg). Levels of DPPH* scavenging activity, TPC, ACL, and ORAC in HCl/methanol extracts were obviously higher than those present in methanol extracts. There was no significant loss of antioxidant capacity when corn was dried at relatively high temperatures (65 and 93 degrees C) postharvest as compared to drying at ambient temperatures (27 degrees C). Alkaline hydrolysates showed very high TPC, ACL, and ORAC values when compared to methanol and HCl/methanol extracts. High-amylose corn had a better antioxidant capacity than did typical (nonmutant) corn genotypes.