Short-term effects of parenteral nutrition of cholestatic infants with lipid emulsions based on medium-chain and long-chain triacylglycerols.Nutrition. 2007 Feb; 23(2):121-6.N
Infants with chronic cholestasis may require parenteral nutrition with lipid emulsions to provide energy and essential fatty acids but the optimal strategy is controversial.
We studied the effects of parenteral lipid emulsions with long-chain triacylglycerols (LCTs) or a mixture of LCTs and medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs/LCTs) on serum bilirubin and lipid metabolism in cholestatic infants who received these 20% emulsions in alternating order for 3 d each, together with a glucose and amino acid infusion.
Of 11 recruited infants, two dropped out because enteral feeding could be established. In nine infants (2-8 mo of age, mean age 4.2 mo) who completed the study, serum bilirubin decreased from baseline to 6 h after the end of LCT infusion (from 8.5 +/- 2.0 to 7.8 +/- 1.8 mg/dL, mean +/- SEM, P < 0.05) and MCT/LCT infusion (7.9 +/- 6.5 to 7.1 +/- 6.5 mg/dL, P < 0.05). Cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and phospholipid concentrations in plasma and in chylomicrons, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein were not changed by either emulsion. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in high-density lipoprotein phospholipids increased during LCT infusion (from 29.8 +/- 0.9 to 35.9 +/- 1.4% wt/wt, P < 0.05) and MCT/LCT infusion (from 30.4 +/- 1.0 to 33.0 +/- 0.7%, P < 0.05). The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid increased only with the LCT infusion. Because docosahexaenoic acid availability during infancy is important for early visual and cognitive development, the use of soybean oil-based lipid emulsions may be preferable for infants with severe progressive cholestasis.
The MCT/LCT and LCT emulsions showed a good metabolic tolerance in infants with chronic cholestasis but had a differential effect on high-density lipoprotein phospholipid contents of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids.