Resolvin D1 and its aspirin-triggered 17R epimer. Stereochemical assignments, anti-inflammatory properties, and enzymatic inactivation.J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 30; 282(13):9323-9334.JB
We recently uncovered two new families of potent docosahexaenoic acid-derived mediators, termed D series resolvins (Rv; resolution phase interaction products) and protectins. Here, we assign the stereochemistry of the conjugated double bonds and chirality of alcohols present in resolvin D1 (RvD1) and its aspirin-triggered 17R epimer (AT-RvD1) with compounds prepared by total organic synthesis. In addition, docosahexaenoic acid was converted by a single lipoxygenase in a "one-pot" reaction to RvD1 in vitro. The synthetic compounds matched the physical and biological properties of those enzymatically generated. RvD1 proved to be 7S,8R,17S-trihydroxy-4Z,9E,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid, AT-RvD1 matched 7S,8R,17R-trihydroxy-4Z,9E,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid, and they both stopped transendothelial migration of human neutrophils (EC(50) approximately 30 nM). In murine peritonitis in vivo, RvD1 and AT-RvD1 proved equipotent (at nanogram dosages), limiting polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration in a dose-dependent fashion. RvD1 was converted by eicosanoid oxidoreductase to novel 8-oxo- and 17-oxo-RvD1 that gave dramatically reduced bioactivity, whereas enzymatic conversion of AT-RvD1 was sharply reduced. These results establish the complete stereochemistry and actions of RvD1 and AT-RvD1 as well as demonstrate the stereoselective basis for their enzymatic inactivation. RvD1 regulates human polymorphonuclear leukocyte transendothelial migration and is anti-inflammatory. When its carbon 17S alcohol is enzymatically converted to 17-oxo-RvD1, it is essentially inactive, whereas the 17R alcohol configuration in its aspirin-triggered form (AT-RvD1) resists rapid inactivation. These results may contribute to the beneficial actions of aspirin and omega-3 fish oils in humans.