The Molecular Basis of Genetic Diversity among Cytoplasms of Triticum and Aegilops. III. Chloroplast Genomes of the M and Modified M Genome-Carrying Species.Genetics. 1984 Nov; 108(3):681-95.G
The restriction fragment patterns of chloroplast DNAs of all M or modified M genome-carrying Aegilops species, and those of common wheat (Triticum aestivum), Ae. umbellulata and Ae. squarrosa as referants, have been analyzed using eight restriction endonucleases, BamHI, EcoRI, HindIII, KpnI, PstI, SalI, SmaI and XhoI. Nine distinctly different chloroplast genomes are evident, and the mutual relatedness among them is estimated based on the number of different restriction fragments. The results lead to the following conclusions. (1) Chloroplast genomes of three Comopyrum species, Ae. comosa, Ae. heldreichii and Ae. uniaristata, are more closely related with each other and are greatly different from those of the Amblyopyrum species, Ae. mutica, and of Ae. umbellulata and Ae. squarrosa. (2) Ae. crassa's chloroplast genome lies at the center of chloroplast genome diversification, whereas those of common wheat, Ae. squarrosa and Ae. uniaristata are three extreme forms lying far from the center. (3) Chloroplast genomes of three 4x species, Ae. biuncialis, Ae. columnaris and Ae. triaristata, arose from Ae. umbellulata, and that of a fourth 4x species, Ae. ventricosa , arose from Ae. squarrosa. The chloroplast origins of two other 4x species, Ae. ovata and Ae. crassa, remain unsolved. (4) The chloroplast genomes of two Ae. mutica strains are identical, even though their cytoplasms exert quite different effects on male fertility, heading date and growth vigor of common wheat.