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The chronicle of influenza epidemics.
Hist Philos Life Sci. 1991; 13(2):223-34.HP

Abstract

Epidemics that were probably influenza have been reported throughout recorded history. There were 13 fairly severe epidemics during the 18th century and 12 during the 19th century. Probably 8 of these 25 were influenza pandemic. In the 20th century there have been 4 pandemic (1918/19, 1957/58, 1968/69 and 1977) due to the emergence of new subtypes of influenza A virus. The great pandemic of 1918/19 caused an estimated 20 million deaths. Between pandemics usually there have been epidemics of varying severity at intervals of one to three years and a trickle of sporadic cases every winter. The morbidity and mortality rates have varied greatly from epidemic to epidemic and from place to place during the same epidemic. Generally the morbidity has been lowest in people over 60 years of age, but, except for 1918/19, the mortality has been predominantly in old people. The epidemic behaviour of influenza has been so erratic and difficult to understand that there are still a few scientists who consider that extraterrestrial influences operate. These views are not taken seriously by most virologists but there are puzzling aspects of influenza that are not yet understood.

Authors

No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Historical Article
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

1724803

Citation

Beveridge, W I.. "The Chronicle of Influenza Epidemics." History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, vol. 13, no. 2, 1991, pp. 223-34.
Beveridge WI. The chronicle of influenza epidemics. Hist Philos Life Sci. 1991;13(2):223-34.
Beveridge, W. I. (1991). The chronicle of influenza epidemics. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 13(2), 223-34.
Beveridge WI. The Chronicle of Influenza Epidemics. Hist Philos Life Sci. 1991;13(2):223-34. PubMed PMID: 1724803.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The chronicle of influenza epidemics. A1 - Beveridge,W I, PY - 1991/1/1/pubmed PY - 1991/1/1/medline PY - 1991/1/1/entrez SP - 223 EP - 34 JF - History and philosophy of the life sciences JO - Hist Philos Life Sci VL - 13 IS - 2 N2 - Epidemics that were probably influenza have been reported throughout recorded history. There were 13 fairly severe epidemics during the 18th century and 12 during the 19th century. Probably 8 of these 25 were influenza pandemic. In the 20th century there have been 4 pandemic (1918/19, 1957/58, 1968/69 and 1977) due to the emergence of new subtypes of influenza A virus. The great pandemic of 1918/19 caused an estimated 20 million deaths. Between pandemics usually there have been epidemics of varying severity at intervals of one to three years and a trickle of sporadic cases every winter. The morbidity and mortality rates have varied greatly from epidemic to epidemic and from place to place during the same epidemic. Generally the morbidity has been lowest in people over 60 years of age, but, except for 1918/19, the mortality has been predominantly in old people. The epidemic behaviour of influenza has been so erratic and difficult to understand that there are still a few scientists who consider that extraterrestrial influences operate. These views are not taken seriously by most virologists but there are puzzling aspects of influenza that are not yet understood. SN - 0391-9714 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/1724803/The_chronicle_of_influenza_epidemics_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/flu.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -