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Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in children.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

During epidemic years, influenza attack rates in children exceed 40%. Options for prevention and treatment include the neuraminidase inhibitors: zanamivir and oseltamivir.

OBJECTIVES

To assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of neuraminidase inhibitors in the treatment and prevention of influenza infection in children.

SEARCH STRATEGY

We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2005); MEDLINE (1966 to April 2005); EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2004); the on-line GlaxoSmithKline Clinical Trials Register; the on-line Roche Clinical Trial Protocol Registry and Clinical Trial Results Database (August 2005); and reference lists of articles. We also scrutinised web sites of European and US regulatory bodies and contacted manufacturers and authors.

SELECTION CRITERIA

Double-blind, randomised, controlled trials comparing neuraminidase inhibitors with placebo or other antiviral drugs in children less than 12 years of age. Additional safety and tolerability data from other sources were also included.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

Four authors applied the inclusion criteria to the retrieved studies, assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data were analysed separately for oseltamivir and zanamivir.

MAIN RESULTS

Three trials involving 1500 children with a clinical case definition of influenza were included, of whom 977 had laboratory-confirmed influenza. Overall, trial quality was good. Oseltamivir reduced the median duration of illness by 26% (36 hours) in healthy children with laboratory-confirmed influenza (P value less than 0.0001). The reduction was only 7.7% (10 hours) in 'at risk' (asthmatic) children, and this did not reach statistical significance (P value = 0.54). Zanamivir reduced the median duration of illness by 24% (1.25 days) in healthy children with laboratory-confirmed influenza (P value less than 0.001). No data in 'at risk' children were available. Only oseltamivir produced a significant reduction in the complications of influenza (particularly otitis media), although there was a trend to benefit for zanamivir. We identified one randomised, controlled trial of oseltamivir for the prevention of influenza transmission in households, reporting data from 222 paediatric contacts. Where index cases had laboratory-confirmed influenza, a protective efficacy of 55% was observed, but this did not reach statistical significance (P value = 0.089). The adverse events profile of zanamivir was no worse than placebo, but vomiting was more common in children treated with oseltamivir.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS

Neuraminidase inhibitors are effective in shortening illness duration in healthy children with influenza, but efficacy in 'at risk' children remains to be proven. Oseltamivir is also effective in reducing the incidence of secondary complications, and may be effective for influenza prophylaxis.

Authors

No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17253479

Citation

Matheson, N J., et al. "Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Preventing and Treating Influenza in Children." The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2007, p. CD002744.
Matheson NJ, Harnden AR, Perera R, et al. Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007.
Matheson, N. J., Harnden, A. R., Perera, R., Sheikh, A., & Symmonds-Abrahams, M. (2007). Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in children. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (1), CD002744.
Matheson NJ, et al. Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Preventing and Treating Influenza in Children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan 24;(1)CD002744. PubMed PMID: 17253479.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in children. AU - Matheson,N J, AU - Harnden,A R, AU - Perera,R, AU - Sheikh,A, AU - Symmonds-Abrahams,M, Y1 - 2007/01/24/ PY - 2007/1/27/pubmed PY - 2007/5/9/medline PY - 2007/1/27/entrez SP - CD002744 EP - CD002744 JF - The Cochrane database of systematic reviews JO - Cochrane Database Syst Rev IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: During epidemic years, influenza attack rates in children exceed 40%. Options for prevention and treatment include the neuraminidase inhibitors: zanamivir and oseltamivir. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of neuraminidase inhibitors in the treatment and prevention of influenza infection in children. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2005); MEDLINE (1966 to April 2005); EMBASE (January 1980 to December 2004); the on-line GlaxoSmithKline Clinical Trials Register; the on-line Roche Clinical Trial Protocol Registry and Clinical Trial Results Database (August 2005); and reference lists of articles. We also scrutinised web sites of European and US regulatory bodies and contacted manufacturers and authors. SELECTION CRITERIA: Double-blind, randomised, controlled trials comparing neuraminidase inhibitors with placebo or other antiviral drugs in children less than 12 years of age. Additional safety and tolerability data from other sources were also included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Four authors applied the inclusion criteria to the retrieved studies, assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data were analysed separately for oseltamivir and zanamivir. MAIN RESULTS: Three trials involving 1500 children with a clinical case definition of influenza were included, of whom 977 had laboratory-confirmed influenza. Overall, trial quality was good. Oseltamivir reduced the median duration of illness by 26% (36 hours) in healthy children with laboratory-confirmed influenza (P value less than 0.0001). The reduction was only 7.7% (10 hours) in 'at risk' (asthmatic) children, and this did not reach statistical significance (P value = 0.54). Zanamivir reduced the median duration of illness by 24% (1.25 days) in healthy children with laboratory-confirmed influenza (P value less than 0.001). No data in 'at risk' children were available. Only oseltamivir produced a significant reduction in the complications of influenza (particularly otitis media), although there was a trend to benefit for zanamivir. We identified one randomised, controlled trial of oseltamivir for the prevention of influenza transmission in households, reporting data from 222 paediatric contacts. Where index cases had laboratory-confirmed influenza, a protective efficacy of 55% was observed, but this did not reach statistical significance (P value = 0.089). The adverse events profile of zanamivir was no worse than placebo, but vomiting was more common in children treated with oseltamivir. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Neuraminidase inhibitors are effective in shortening illness duration in healthy children with influenza, but efficacy in 'at risk' children remains to be proven. Oseltamivir is also effective in reducing the incidence of secondary complications, and may be effective for influenza prophylaxis. SN - 1469-493X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17253479/Neuraminidase_inhibitors_for_preventing_and_treating_influenza_in_children_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002744.pub2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -