[Evaluation of gingival condition in homozygous children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia in Senegal].Odontostomatol Trop. 2006 Dec; 29(116):12-8.OT
Sickle cell anaemia is an inherited disorder of haemoglobin synthesis leading to haemolytic anaemia. It touches more than 50 million people in the world and 10% of the population in Senegal. Only the homozygous form is symptomatic and appears by painful crises of vaso-occlusive type. There is a lack of works carried out or published in Senegal about potential link between periodontal conditions and sickle-cell anaemia. The main objective of this study is to assess the gingival conditions in Senegalese children and adolescents homozygous sickle cell anaemic. Secondary, the gingival state is correlated with oral hygiene and rate of reticulocytes to determine their relationship. Fifty homozygous attending the Albert Royer Paediatric Hospital of Dakar and unscathed of other systemic pathologies, were examined. The patients are old between 3 and 16 years with an average age 9.4 years +/- 3.8. The gingival state is assessed by measurement of the gingival index (GI) and index of sulculary bleeding (SBI). Partial correlation is performed between the two indexes and average of reticulocytes. The gingival index mean is 1.7 +/- 0.6 and 66% of the patients present a severe inflammation, which is more frequent in the age bracket from 3 to 12 years. The SBI mean is 1 +/- 1.1 and 68% of the patients present gingival bleeding, which is moderate to severe in 18%, with a greater frequency in the age bracket from 13 to 16 years. Strong correlation is found between plaque index, GI and SBI. Damage of gingival state seems not to be linked to the high average of reticulocytes controlling for oral hygiene. Children and adolescent homozygous have an inflammatory periodontium associated to poor oral hygiene, which highlights their needs in periodontal treatments. Early tracking and preventive treatment of periodontal diseases during systematic oral visits must be required.