Cognitions related to chronic pain: revision and extension of the cognitive evaluation questionnaire.Clin J Pain. 2007 Jan; 23(1):53-61.CJ
The assessment of cognitive reactions to chronic pain is less well developed than other areas of pain assessment. The aim of the first study was to revise the Cognitive Evaluation Questionnaire of Philips whereas the second study examined its properties and validity in a new sample of people with chronic pain.
The revised scale underwent item analysis in 87 undergraduates, all of whom had pain of at least 1-month duration during the previous year, and was correlated with Skevington's Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire and 3 ratings of pain severity over time. In a second study, 96 participants with chronic pain (50 females) completed the Revised Cognitive Evaluation Questionnaire, the Survey of Pain Attitudes-Brief, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and sections of the Sickness Impact Profile. Hierarchical regression examined the construct validity of the revised scales in relation to psychosocial functioning and depression.
Results showed acceptable internal consistency in both samples, and significant correlations with pain severity and the beliefs scales in Study 1. In Study 2, all but 2 scales showed correlations with the measure of beliefs about pain. The hierarchical multiple regression results showed that only Disability belief predicted psychosocial functioning, whereas Control from the beliefs measure and the new revised Causal Rumination and Concern with Effects of Pain scales predicted the CES-D depression scores.
The revised cognitive scales in themselves were significant predictors in Study 2, and their contribution was more effective for depression than for psychosocial functioning. The results showed promise for the revised scale and are discussed in relation to previous research, with recommendations for future research into the cognitive reactions of individuals with chronic pain.