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Heme and non-heme iron consumption and risk of gallstone disease in men.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb; 85(2):518-22.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Excessive iron intake can promote biliary cholesterol crystal formation in experimental studies. The absorption of heme iron is more complete than that of non-heme iron in humans; however, the effect of long-term consumption of heme and non-heme iron on the risk of gallstones is unknown.

OBJECTIVE

The objective of the study was to examine long-term iron intake in relation to the occurrence of gallstone disease.

DESIGN

We prospectively studied intakes of heme and non-heme iron and the risk of gallstone disease in a cohort of 44 758 US men from 1986 to 2002. Iron consumption was assessed by using a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Newly diagnosed gallstone disease was ascertained biennially.

RESULTS

We documented 2468 incident cases of symptomatic gallstones during 597 699 person-years of follow-up. The age-adjusted relative risks (RRs) for men with intakes of heme iron and non-heme iron, when the highest and lowest quintiles were compared, were 1.21 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.37; P for trend = 0.0008) and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.16; P for trend = 0.45), respectively. After adjustment for multiple potential confounding variables, when extreme quintiles were compared, the multivariate RR of heme iron intake was not significantly changed and remained significant with a dose-response relation (RR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.42; P for trend = 0.01), and that of non-heme iron intake was not significant (RR = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.31; P for trend = 0.18).

CONCLUSION

Our findings suggest that a higher consumption of heme iron is associated with a greater risk of gallstone disease among men.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA. hpcjt@channing.harvard.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17284752

Citation

Tsai, Chung-Jyi, et al. "Heme and Non-heme Iron Consumption and Risk of Gallstone Disease in Men." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 85, no. 2, 2007, pp. 518-22.
Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Willett WC, et al. Heme and non-heme iron consumption and risk of gallstone disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(2):518-22.
Tsai, C. J., Leitzmann, M. F., Willett, W. C., & Giovannucci, E. L. (2007). Heme and non-heme iron consumption and risk of gallstone disease in men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85(2), 518-22.
Tsai CJ, et al. Heme and Non-heme Iron Consumption and Risk of Gallstone Disease in Men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(2):518-22. PubMed PMID: 17284752.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Heme and non-heme iron consumption and risk of gallstone disease in men. AU - Tsai,Chung-Jyi, AU - Leitzmann,Michael F, AU - Willett,Walter C, AU - Giovannucci,Edward L, PY - 2007/2/8/pubmed PY - 2007/3/14/medline PY - 2007/2/8/entrez SP - 518 EP - 22 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 85 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Excessive iron intake can promote biliary cholesterol crystal formation in experimental studies. The absorption of heme iron is more complete than that of non-heme iron in humans; however, the effect of long-term consumption of heme and non-heme iron on the risk of gallstones is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine long-term iron intake in relation to the occurrence of gallstone disease. DESIGN: We prospectively studied intakes of heme and non-heme iron and the risk of gallstone disease in a cohort of 44 758 US men from 1986 to 2002. Iron consumption was assessed by using a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Newly diagnosed gallstone disease was ascertained biennially. RESULTS: We documented 2468 incident cases of symptomatic gallstones during 597 699 person-years of follow-up. The age-adjusted relative risks (RRs) for men with intakes of heme iron and non-heme iron, when the highest and lowest quintiles were compared, were 1.21 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.37; P for trend = 0.0008) and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.16; P for trend = 0.45), respectively. After adjustment for multiple potential confounding variables, when extreme quintiles were compared, the multivariate RR of heme iron intake was not significantly changed and remained significant with a dose-response relation (RR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.42; P for trend = 0.01), and that of non-heme iron intake was not significant (RR = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.31; P for trend = 0.18). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that a higher consumption of heme iron is associated with a greater risk of gallstone disease among men. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17284752/Heme_and_non_heme_iron_consumption_and_risk_of_gallstone_disease_in_men_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/85.2.518 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -