[Determination of nicotine and cotinine in human biological materials and their significance in toxicological studies].Przegl Lek. 2006; 63(10):892-6.PL
The aim of this study was the preparation of reliable procedure of the determination of nicotine and cotinine both in classic (serum, urine) and alternative biological materials (hair, saliva) and evaluation of their significance for clinical and forensic toxicology. Biological material samples (blood, urine, saliva) were taken from patients after Percutaneous Trans-luminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA). The determination of cotinine and nicotine concentration in the biological material should be optimized depending on the aim of analysis. Liquid-liquid extraction procedure and high performance liquid chromatography HPLC/UV-DAD are reliable, specific and relatively cheap. Serum and saliva are valuable biological materials which allow to determine temporary nicotine and cotinine content on the similar level of concentrations. In the near future it will be able to replace blood with saliva sample because of an easy and non-invasive way of sampling. Evaluation of cotinine concentration in urine allows to distinguish the passive from the active tobacco smokers. Hair analysis allows to control a nicotine abstinence as well as a long-term evaluation of the history of smoking. However usage of hair is limited because of difficulty with sampling. Interpretation of results in analysis of alternative materials (hair, saliva) pose a problem because of lack of sampling standardization and lack of standardization of final analysis method.