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Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec; 61(12):1400-6.EJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare fracture rates in four diet groups (meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans) in the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford).

DESIGN

Prospective cohort study of self-reported fracture risk at follow-up.

SETTING

The United Kingdom.

SUBJECTS

A total of 7947 men and 26,749 women aged 20-89 years, including 19,249 meat eaters, 4901 fish eaters, 9420 vegetarians and 1126 vegans, recruited by postal methods and through general practice surgeries.

METHODS

Cox regression.

RESULTS

Over an average of 5.2 years of follow-up, 343 men and 1555 women reported one or more fractures. Compared with meat eaters, fracture incidence rate ratios in men and women combined adjusted for sex, age and non-dietary factors were 1.01 (95% CI 0.88-1.17) for fish eaters, 1.00 (0.89-1.13) for vegetarians and 1.30 (1.02-1.66) for vegans. After further adjustment for dietary energy and calcium intake the incidence rate ratio among vegans compared with meat eaters was 1.15 (0.89-1.49). Among subjects consuming at least 525 mg/day calcium the corresponding incidence rate ratios were 1.05 (0.90-1.21) for fish eaters, 1.02 (0.90-1.15) for vegetarians and 1.00 (0.69-1.44) for vegans.

CONCLUSIONS

In this population, fracture risk was similar for meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians. The higher fracture risk in the vegans appeared to be a consequence of their considerably lower mean calcium intake. An adequate calcium intake is essential for bone health, irrespective of dietary preferences.

SPONSORSHIP

The EPIC-Oxford study is supported by The Medical Research Council and Cancer Research UK.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Cancer Research UK Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. paul.appleby@ceu.ox.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17299475

Citation

Appleby, P, et al. "Comparative Fracture Risk in Vegetarians and Nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 61, no. 12, 2007, pp. 1400-6.
Appleby P, Roddam A, Allen N, et al. Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007;61(12):1400-6.
Appleby, P., Roddam, A., Allen, N., & Key, T. (2007). Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61(12), 1400-6.
Appleby P, et al. Comparative Fracture Risk in Vegetarians and Nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007;61(12):1400-6. PubMed PMID: 17299475.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparative fracture risk in vegetarians and nonvegetarians in EPIC-Oxford. AU - Appleby,P, AU - Roddam,A, AU - Allen,N, AU - Key,T, Y1 - 2007/02/07/ PY - 2007/2/15/pubmed PY - 2008/2/20/medline PY - 2007/2/15/entrez SP - 1400 EP - 6 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 61 IS - 12 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To compare fracture rates in four diet groups (meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans) in the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of self-reported fracture risk at follow-up. SETTING: The United Kingdom. SUBJECTS: A total of 7947 men and 26,749 women aged 20-89 years, including 19,249 meat eaters, 4901 fish eaters, 9420 vegetarians and 1126 vegans, recruited by postal methods and through general practice surgeries. METHODS: Cox regression. RESULTS: Over an average of 5.2 years of follow-up, 343 men and 1555 women reported one or more fractures. Compared with meat eaters, fracture incidence rate ratios in men and women combined adjusted for sex, age and non-dietary factors were 1.01 (95% CI 0.88-1.17) for fish eaters, 1.00 (0.89-1.13) for vegetarians and 1.30 (1.02-1.66) for vegans. After further adjustment for dietary energy and calcium intake the incidence rate ratio among vegans compared with meat eaters was 1.15 (0.89-1.49). Among subjects consuming at least 525 mg/day calcium the corresponding incidence rate ratios were 1.05 (0.90-1.21) for fish eaters, 1.02 (0.90-1.15) for vegetarians and 1.00 (0.69-1.44) for vegans. CONCLUSIONS: In this population, fracture risk was similar for meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians. The higher fracture risk in the vegans appeared to be a consequence of their considerably lower mean calcium intake. An adequate calcium intake is essential for bone health, irrespective of dietary preferences. SPONSORSHIP: The EPIC-Oxford study is supported by The Medical Research Council and Cancer Research UK. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17299475/Comparative_fracture_risk_in_vegetarians_and_nonvegetarians_in_EPIC_Oxford_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602659 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -