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Representation of harmony rules in the human brain: further evidence from event-related potentials.
Brain Res. 2007 Apr 20; 1142:169-77.BR

Abstract

In Western tonal music, the rules of harmony determine the order and music-structural importance of events in a musical piece: for instance, the tonic chord, built on the first note of the diatonic scale, is usually placed at the end of chord sequences. A brain response termed the early right anterior negativity (ERAN) is elicited when a harmonically incongruous chord is inserted within or at the end of a musical sequence. The present study was conducted to test whether the ERAN reflects the processing of harmony rather than the building of a tonal context and whether the ERAN is also elicited by violations of the tuning of the sounds upon which harmony is based. To this aim, ten subjects listened to musical sequences containing either expected chords only, a harmonically incongruous chord in one of three positions within the cadence, or a harmonically congruous but mistuned chord in one of the three positions. Simultaneously, the electroencephalograph (EEG) was recorded. Incongruous chords violating the rules of harmony elicited a bilateral early anterior negativity, the amplitude of which depended on the degree of the harmony violation. On the contrary, mistuned chords, violating the rule of relations between all the sounds in the sequences, elicited a bilateral fronto-central negativity (the mismatch negativity, or MMN). The MMN was not modulated by the position of the violation within the musical sequence and had a longer peak latency than the anterior negativity elicited by the harmony rule violations. In conclusion, violations of the harmony and tuning rules of Western tonal music were found to generate specific and distinct electric responses in the human brain.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Apperception and Cortical Dynamics, Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Finland.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17300763

Citation

Leino, Sakari, et al. "Representation of Harmony Rules in the Human Brain: Further Evidence From Event-related Potentials." Brain Research, vol. 1142, 2007, pp. 169-77.
Leino S, Brattico E, Tervaniemi M, et al. Representation of harmony rules in the human brain: further evidence from event-related potentials. Brain Res. 2007;1142:169-77.
Leino, S., Brattico, E., Tervaniemi, M., & Vuust, P. (2007). Representation of harmony rules in the human brain: further evidence from event-related potentials. Brain Research, 1142, 169-77.
Leino S, et al. Representation of Harmony Rules in the Human Brain: Further Evidence From Event-related Potentials. Brain Res. 2007 Apr 20;1142:169-77. PubMed PMID: 17300763.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Representation of harmony rules in the human brain: further evidence from event-related potentials. AU - Leino,Sakari, AU - Brattico,Elvira, AU - Tervaniemi,Mari, AU - Vuust,Peter, Y1 - 2007/01/23/ PY - 2006/09/20/received PY - 2007/01/05/revised PY - 2007/01/10/accepted PY - 2007/2/16/pubmed PY - 2007/6/15/medline PY - 2007/2/16/entrez SP - 169 EP - 77 JF - Brain research JO - Brain Res VL - 1142 N2 - In Western tonal music, the rules of harmony determine the order and music-structural importance of events in a musical piece: for instance, the tonic chord, built on the first note of the diatonic scale, is usually placed at the end of chord sequences. A brain response termed the early right anterior negativity (ERAN) is elicited when a harmonically incongruous chord is inserted within or at the end of a musical sequence. The present study was conducted to test whether the ERAN reflects the processing of harmony rather than the building of a tonal context and whether the ERAN is also elicited by violations of the tuning of the sounds upon which harmony is based. To this aim, ten subjects listened to musical sequences containing either expected chords only, a harmonically incongruous chord in one of three positions within the cadence, or a harmonically congruous but mistuned chord in one of the three positions. Simultaneously, the electroencephalograph (EEG) was recorded. Incongruous chords violating the rules of harmony elicited a bilateral early anterior negativity, the amplitude of which depended on the degree of the harmony violation. On the contrary, mistuned chords, violating the rule of relations between all the sounds in the sequences, elicited a bilateral fronto-central negativity (the mismatch negativity, or MMN). The MMN was not modulated by the position of the violation within the musical sequence and had a longer peak latency than the anterior negativity elicited by the harmony rule violations. In conclusion, violations of the harmony and tuning rules of Western tonal music were found to generate specific and distinct electric responses in the human brain. SN - 0006-8993 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17300763/Representation_of_harmony_rules_in_the_human_brain:_further_evidence_from_event_related_potentials_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0006-8993(07)00078-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -