Smoking modulates interleukin-6:interleukin-10 and RANKL:osteoprotegerin ratios in the periodontal tissues.J Periodontal Res. 2007 Apr; 42(2):184-91.JP
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE
This study evaluated the effect of smoking on the gene expression of interleukin-1alpha, -1ra, -6, -8 and -10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -8, receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin, in sites with periodontitis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Gingival biopsies were divided into three groups: the healthy group (periodontally healthy subjects; n=10); the periodontitis group [subjects with severe chronic periodontitis who never smoked (probing depth>or=7 mm) (n=25)]; and the smoking group (subjects diagnosed with severe chronic periodontitis who smoked>or=1 pack per day for at least 10 years; n=25). Gene and protein expressions were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively.
Data analysis demonstrated that, except for MMP-8 and osteoprotegerin, the levels of all factors were increased by inflammation (p<0.001). The levels of interleukin-1alpha, -1ra, -6 and -8, and RANKL, were higher in smokers with periodontitis compared with controls, whereas the levels of interleukin-10, MMP-8 and osteoprotegerin were lower (p<0.001). Smoking lowered the levels of interleukin-1alpha, -8, -10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, MMP-8 and osteoprotegerin, and increased the levels of interleukin-6 and -1ra in sites with a comparable type of periodontitis (p<0.001).
In conclusion, smoking modulates gene expression in the periodontium, and the influence of smoking on periodontal disease may involve effects of interleukin-6:interleukin-10 and RANKL:osteoprotegerin ratios.