Clinical impact of antibiotic resistance in respiratory tract infections.Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2007 Feb; 29 Suppl 1:S6-10.IJ
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. In vitro evidence indicates that S. pneumoniae is increasingly resistant to commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents including the macrolides. The clinical relevance of resistance, however, has not been clearly established. This article reviews the risk factors influencing selection of resistant pneumococci, discusses endpoints used to assess the impact of resistance on clinical outcome, and proposes strategies to minimise the impact of resistance. Evidence demonstrating treatment failures due to macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae is also reviewed. Increasing rates of resistance among S. pneumoniae present numerous clinical challenges, and require carefully selected treatment strategies to preserve antibacterial efficacy. Antibiotics with a low propensity for stimulating resistance should be chosen wherever possible.