Relation between hydration status in children and their dietary profile - results from the DONALD study.Eur J Clin Nutr 2007; 61(12):1386-92EJ
To describe associations between hydration status and dietary behaviour in children, as current research indicates that hydration status is influenced by nutrition vice versa, hydration status may influence dietary behaviour.
Cross-sectional analyses of data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study, (DONALD) using 24-h urine samples to determine the hydration status and 3-day weighed food records to describe the dietary profile of the children.
Secondary analyses of data from an observational study.
A group of 4-11 year old children living in Dortmund, Germany; N=717.
Hydration status was determined by calculating the 'free water reserve', using analyses of the 24-h urine samples. Nutrient intake per day was calculated from the 3-day weighed food records. Children were categorized into groups of hydration status and analysed for significant differences in their dietary profile.
Children in the highest group of the hydration status had significant higher total water intake, lower energy density of the diet and a lower proportion of metabolic water compared to children in the lowest group of the hydration status. In addition, analyses showed - although not significant in all subgroups - that better hydrated children consumed more water from beverages and water-supplying foods and less energy from fat.
Euhydrated children, that are children in the highest group of hydration status, had a more preferable dietary profile than children at risk of insufficient hydration.
Funding for the DONALD Study and its analyses is provided by the Ministry of Innovation, Science, Research and Technology of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.