A follow-up study on the effects of a milk supplement on bone mineral density of postmenopausal Chinese women in Malaysia.J Nutr Health Aging 2007 Jan-Feb; 11(1):69-73JN
A previous study on a randomized controlled trial in 173 postmenopausal Chinese women in Kuala Lumpur showed that milk supplementation was effective to reduce bone loss at the total body, lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip compared to the control group on a usual diet (Chee et al. 2003).
The objective was to determine whether the results were sustained after the conclusion of the study.
A follow-up study, 18 months after a randomized controlled trial of milk supplementation was concluded. A total of 139 participants were followed up 21 months after the study ended. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the total body, lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and anthropometric measurements as well as changes in dietary habits were measured.
At the follow-up, the milk supplement group did not show significant bone loss from baseline at most sites (mean differences +/- SE) (total body 0.42 +/- 0.25%, femoral neck 0.44 +/- 0.58%, total hip -0.06 +/- 0.46%), unlike the control group (total body -1.07 +/- 0.28% p < 0.005, femoral neck -1.49 +/- 0.56% p < 0.05, total hip -0.89 +/- 0.57% p < 0.05). However, both the milk and control groups showed bone loss from baseline at the lumbar spine (milk -2.01%, control -3.29%, p superior 0.05). The calcium intake of the milk group remained significantly higher than the control group (milk 710 mg/day, control 466 mg/day, p < 0.005) despite discontinuation of the milk supplement.
The results showed that some of the beneficial effects of a milk supplement were still evident at follow-up and it was possible to motivate subjects to adopt a positive change in dietary calcium intake after intervention.