Aged garlic extract and S-allyl cysteine prevent formation of advanced glycation endproducts.
Hyperglycaemia causes increased protein glycation and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts which underlie the complications of diabetes and ageing. Glycation is accompanied by metal-catalysed oxidation of glucose and Amadori products to form free radicals capable of protein fragmentation. Aged garlic extract is a potent antioxidant with established lipid-lowering effects attributed largely to a key ingredient called S-allyl cysteine. This study investigated the ability of aged garlic extract and S-allyl cysteine to inhibit advanced glycation in vitro. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was glycated in the presence of Cu(2+) ions and different concentrations of aged garlic extract and protein fragmentation was examined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Lysozyme was glycated by glucose or methylglyoxal in the presence of different concentrations of aged garlic extract or S-allyl cysteine with subsequent analysis of glycation-derived crosslinking using SDS-PAGE. Amadori-rich protein was prepared by dialysing lysozyme that had been glycated by ribose for 24 h. This ribated lysozyme was reincubated and the effects of aged garlic extract, S-allyl cysteine and pyridoxamine on glycation-induced crosslinking was monitored. Aged garlic extract inhibited metal-catalysed protein fragmentation. Both aged garlic extract and S-allyl cysteine inhibited formation of glucose and methylglyoxal derived advanced glycation endproducts and showed potent Amadorin activity when compared to pyridoxamine. S-allyl cysteine inhibited formation of carboxymethyllysine (CML), a non-crosslinked advanced glycation endproduct derived from oxidative processes. Further studies are required to assess whether aged garlic extract and S-allyl cysteine can protect against the harmful effects of glycation and free radicals in diabetes and ageing.
School of Biology, Chemistry and Health Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Oxford Road, Manchester M1 5GD, UK.,
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Glycation End Products, Advanced
Pub Type(s)Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't