Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthocyanins in red raspberries and identification of anthocyanins in extract using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.Ultrason Sonochem. 2007 Sep; 14(6):767-78.US
Anthocyanins (Acys) are naturally occurring compounds that impart color to fruit, vegetables and plants. The extraction of Acys from red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. var. Heritage) by ultrasound-assisted process (UAP) was studied. A central composite rotate design (CCRD) was used to obtain the optimal conditions of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and the effects of operating conditions, such as the ratio of solvents to materials, ultrasonic power and extraction time, on the extraction yield of Acys were studied through response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized conditions of UAE were as follows: ratio of solvents to materials was 4:1 (ml/g), extraction time was 200s, and ultrasonic power was 400 W. Under these conditions 34.5 mg of Acys from 100g of fresh fruits (T(Acy), expressed as cyanidin-3-glucoside), approximately 78.13% of the total red pigments, could be obtained by UAE. The Acys compositions of extracts were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), 12 kinds of Acys had been detected and eight kinds of Acys were characterized. Result indicated that cyanidin-3-sophoroside, cyanidin-3-(2(G)-glucosylrutinoside), cyanidin-3-sambubioside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-xylosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-(2(G)-glucosylrutinoside), and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were main components in extracts. In addition, in comparison with the conventional solvent extraction, UAE is more efficient and rapid to extract Acys from red raspberry, due to the strong disruption of fruit tissue structure under ultrasonic acoustic cavitation, which had been observed with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, the Acys compositions in extracts by both methods were similar, which were investigated using HPLC profile.