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Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Garlic is widely promoted as a cholesterol-lowering agent, but efficacy studies have produced conflicting results. Garlic supplements differ in bioavailability of key phytochemicals. We evaluated the effect of raw garlic and 2 commonly used garlic supplements on cholesterol concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia.

METHODS

In this parallel-design trial, 192 adults with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations of 130 to 190 mg/dL (3.36-4.91 mmol/L) were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 4 treatment arms: raw garlic, powdered garlic supplement, aged garlic extract supplement, or placebo. Garlic product doses equivalent to an average-sized garlic clove were consumed 6 d/wk for 6 months. The primary study outcome was LDL-C concentration. Fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed monthly. Extensive chemical characterization of study materials was conducted throughout the trial.

RESULTS

Retention was 87% to 90% in all 4 treatment arms, and chemical stability of study materials was high throughout the trial. There were no statistically significant effects of the 3 forms of garlic on LDL-C concentrations. The 6-month mean (SD) changes in LDL-C concentrations were +0.4 (19.3) mg/dL (+0.01 [0.50] mmol/L), +3.2 (17.2) mg/dL (+0.08 [0.44] mmol/L), +0.2 (17.8) mg/dL (+0.005 [0.46] mmol/L), and -3.9 (16.5) mg/dL (-0.10 [0.43] mmol/L) for raw garlic, powdered supplement, aged extract supplement, and placebo, respectively. There were no statistically significant effects on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride levels, or total cholesterol-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio.

CONCLUSIONS

None of the forms of garlic used in this study, including raw garlic, when given at an approximate dose of a 4-g clove per day, 6 d/wk for 6 months, had statistically or clinically significant effects on LDL-C or other plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Stanford Prevention Research Center and Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical School, Stanford, Calif 94305, USA. cgardner@stanford.edu

    , , , , ,

    Source

    Archives of internal medicine 167:4 2007 Feb 26 pg 346-53

    MeSH

    Allyl Compounds
    Antihypertensive Agents
    Cholesterol, LDL
    Dietary Supplements
    Disulfides
    Female
    Follow-Up Studies
    Garlic
    Humans
    Hypercholesterolemia
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Phytotherapy
    Plant Preparations
    Retrospective Studies
    Treatment Outcome

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    17325296

    Citation

    Gardner, Christopher D., et al. "Effect of Raw Garlic Vs Commercial Garlic Supplements On Plasma Lipid Concentrations in Adults With Moderate Hypercholesterolemia: a Randomized Clinical Trial." Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 167, no. 4, 2007, pp. 346-53.
    Gardner CD, Lawson LD, Block E, et al. Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167(4):346-53.
    Gardner, C. D., Lawson, L. D., Block, E., Chatterjee, L. M., Kiazand, A., Balise, R. R., & Kraemer, H. C. (2007). Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167(4), pp. 346-53.
    Gardner CD, et al. Effect of Raw Garlic Vs Commercial Garlic Supplements On Plasma Lipid Concentrations in Adults With Moderate Hypercholesterolemia: a Randomized Clinical Trial. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Feb 26;167(4):346-53. PubMed PMID: 17325296.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial. AU - Gardner,Christopher D, AU - Lawson,Larry D, AU - Block,Eric, AU - Chatterjee,Lorraine M, AU - Kiazand,Alexandre, AU - Balise,Raymond R, AU - Kraemer,Helena C, PY - 2007/2/28/pubmed PY - 2007/3/30/medline PY - 2007/2/28/entrez SP - 346 EP - 53 JF - Archives of internal medicine JO - Arch. Intern. Med. VL - 167 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Garlic is widely promoted as a cholesterol-lowering agent, but efficacy studies have produced conflicting results. Garlic supplements differ in bioavailability of key phytochemicals. We evaluated the effect of raw garlic and 2 commonly used garlic supplements on cholesterol concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: In this parallel-design trial, 192 adults with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations of 130 to 190 mg/dL (3.36-4.91 mmol/L) were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 4 treatment arms: raw garlic, powdered garlic supplement, aged garlic extract supplement, or placebo. Garlic product doses equivalent to an average-sized garlic clove were consumed 6 d/wk for 6 months. The primary study outcome was LDL-C concentration. Fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed monthly. Extensive chemical characterization of study materials was conducted throughout the trial. RESULTS: Retention was 87% to 90% in all 4 treatment arms, and chemical stability of study materials was high throughout the trial. There were no statistically significant effects of the 3 forms of garlic on LDL-C concentrations. The 6-month mean (SD) changes in LDL-C concentrations were +0.4 (19.3) mg/dL (+0.01 [0.50] mmol/L), +3.2 (17.2) mg/dL (+0.08 [0.44] mmol/L), +0.2 (17.8) mg/dL (+0.005 [0.46] mmol/L), and -3.9 (16.5) mg/dL (-0.10 [0.43] mmol/L) for raw garlic, powdered supplement, aged extract supplement, and placebo, respectively. There were no statistically significant effects on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride levels, or total cholesterol-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. CONCLUSIONS: None of the forms of garlic used in this study, including raw garlic, when given at an approximate dose of a 4-g clove per day, 6 d/wk for 6 months, had statistically or clinically significant effects on LDL-C or other plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia. SN - 0003-9926 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17325296/full_citation L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/10.1001/archinte.167.4.346 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -