Antioxidant effect of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.J Pharm Pharmacol. 2007 Mar; 59(3):445-53.JP
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is one of the most common diseases in society. A large number of studies are in progress to identify natural substances that are effective in reducing the severity of ALD. 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid (HMBA), the active principle of Hemidesmus indicus, an indigenous Ayurvedic medicinal plant in India, is expected to significantly inhibit the development of liver injury in ethanol administration. It is expected to reduce the severity of liver damage in terms of body weight, hepatic marker enzymes, oxidative stress, antioxidant status and histological changes in ethanol-induced hepatotoxic rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced by administering 20% ethanol (5 g kg(-1) daily) for 60 days to male Wistar rats, which resulted in significantly decreased body weight and an increase in liver-body weight ratio. The liver marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase were elevated. In addition, the levels of plasma, erythrocyte and hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes were also elevated in ethanol-fed rats as compared with those of the experimental control rats. Decreased activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol was also observed on alcohol administration as compared with experimental control rats. HMBA was co-administered at a dose of 200 mug kg(-1) daily for the last 30 days of the experiment to rats with alcohol-induced liver injury, which significantly increased body weight, significantly decreased the liver-body weight ratio, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase, significantly decreased the levels of lipid peroxidative markers, significantly elevated the activity of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in plasma, erythrocytes and liver and also increased levels of plasma and liver vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol at the end of the experimental period as compared with untreated ethanol-administered rats. The histological changes were also in correlation with the biochemical findings. The results suggest that HMBA administration may afford protection against ethanol-induced liver injury in rats.