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Environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism: the Geoparkinson study.
Occup Environ Med. 2007 Oct; 64(10):666-72.OE

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the associations between Parkinson's disease and other degenerative parkinsonian syndromes and environmental factors in five European countries.

METHODS

A case-control study of 959 prevalent cases of parkinsonism (767 with Parkinson's disease) and 1989 controls in Scotland, Italy, Sweden, Romania and Malta was carried out. Cases were defined using the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank criteria, and those with drug-induced or vascular parkinsonism or dementia were excluded. Subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire about lifetime occupational and hobby exposure to solvents, pesticides, iron, copper and manganese. Lifetime and average annual exposures were estimated blind to disease status using a job-exposure matrix modified by subjective exposure modelling. Results were analysed using multiple logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, country, tobacco use, ever knocked unconscious and family history of Parkinson's disease.

RESULTS

Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed significantly increased odds ratios for Parkinson's disease/parkinsonism with an exposure-response relationship for pesticides (low vs no exposure, odds ratio (OR) = 1.13, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.57, high vs no exposure, OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.88) and ever knocked unconscious (once vs never, OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.68, more than once vs never, OR = 2.53, 95% CI 1.78 to 3.59). Hypnotic, anxiolytic or antidepressant drug use for more than 1 year and a family history of Parkinson's disease showed significantly increased odds ratios. Tobacco use was protective (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.60). Analyses confined to subjects with Parkinson's disease gave similar results.

CONCLUSIONS

The association of pesticide exposure with Parkinson's disease suggests a causative role. Repeated traumatic loss of consciousness is associated with increased risk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Dr F Dick, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Aberdeen University Medical School, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZP, UK; f.dick@abdn.ac.uk.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17332139

Citation

Dick, F D., et al. "Environmental Risk Factors for Parkinson's Disease and Parkinsonism: the Geoparkinson Study." Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 64, no. 10, 2007, pp. 666-72.
Dick FD, De Palma G, Ahmadi A, et al. Environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism: the Geoparkinson study. Occup Environ Med. 2007;64(10):666-72.
Dick, F. D., De Palma, G., Ahmadi, A., Scott, N. W., Prescott, G. J., Bennett, J., Semple, S., Dick, S., Counsell, C., Mozzoni, P., Haites, N., Wettinger, S. B., Mutti, A., Otelea, M., Seaton, A., Söderkvist, P., & Felice, A. (2007). Environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism: the Geoparkinson study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 64(10), 666-72.
Dick FD, et al. Environmental Risk Factors for Parkinson's Disease and Parkinsonism: the Geoparkinson Study. Occup Environ Med. 2007;64(10):666-72. PubMed PMID: 17332139.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism: the Geoparkinson study. AU - Dick,F D, AU - De Palma,G, AU - Ahmadi,A, AU - Scott,N W, AU - Prescott,G J, AU - Bennett,J, AU - Semple,S, AU - Dick,S, AU - Counsell,C, AU - Mozzoni,P, AU - Haites,N, AU - Wettinger,S Bezzina, AU - Mutti,A, AU - Otelea,M, AU - Seaton,A, AU - Söderkvist,P, AU - Felice,A, AU - ,, Y1 - 2007/03/01/ PY - 2007/3/3/pubmed PY - 2007/10/19/medline PY - 2007/3/3/entrez SP - 666 EP - 72 JF - Occupational and environmental medicine JO - Occup Environ Med VL - 64 IS - 10 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between Parkinson's disease and other degenerative parkinsonian syndromes and environmental factors in five European countries. METHODS: A case-control study of 959 prevalent cases of parkinsonism (767 with Parkinson's disease) and 1989 controls in Scotland, Italy, Sweden, Romania and Malta was carried out. Cases were defined using the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank criteria, and those with drug-induced or vascular parkinsonism or dementia were excluded. Subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire about lifetime occupational and hobby exposure to solvents, pesticides, iron, copper and manganese. Lifetime and average annual exposures were estimated blind to disease status using a job-exposure matrix modified by subjective exposure modelling. Results were analysed using multiple logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, country, tobacco use, ever knocked unconscious and family history of Parkinson's disease. RESULTS: Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed significantly increased odds ratios for Parkinson's disease/parkinsonism with an exposure-response relationship for pesticides (low vs no exposure, odds ratio (OR) = 1.13, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.57, high vs no exposure, OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.88) and ever knocked unconscious (once vs never, OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.68, more than once vs never, OR = 2.53, 95% CI 1.78 to 3.59). Hypnotic, anxiolytic or antidepressant drug use for more than 1 year and a family history of Parkinson's disease showed significantly increased odds ratios. Tobacco use was protective (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.60). Analyses confined to subjects with Parkinson's disease gave similar results. CONCLUSIONS: The association of pesticide exposure with Parkinson's disease suggests a causative role. Repeated traumatic loss of consciousness is associated with increased risk. SN - 1470-7926 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17332139/Environmental_risk_factors_for_Parkinson's_disease_and_parkinsonism:_the_Geoparkinson_study_ L2 - http://oem.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17332139 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -