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Infectious agents as causes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Abstract

Among exposures presently viewed as possible etiologic factors in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), infections are close to being regarded as established causes. Infectious agents causing NHL can be classified, according to mechanism, into three broad groups. First, some viruses can directly transform lymphocytes. Lymphocyte-transforming viruses include Epstein Barr virus (linked to Burkitt's lymphoma, NHLs in immunosuppressed individuals, and extranodal natural killer/T-cell NHL), human herpesvirus 8 (primary effusion lymphoma), and human T lymphotropic virus type I (adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma). Second, human immunodeficiency virus is unique in causing profound depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes, leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and an associated high risk for some NHL subtypes. Third, recent evidence suggests that some infections increase NHL risk through chronic immune stimulation. These infections include hepatitis C virus as well as certain bacteria that cause chronic site-specific inflammation and seem to increase risk for localized mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue NHLs. Establishing that an infectious agent causes NHL depends on showing that the agent is present in persons with NHL as well as laboratory experiments elucidating the mechanisms involved. Only epidemiologic studies can provide evidence that infection is actually a risk factor by showing that infection is more frequent in NHL cases than in controls. Given the range of mechanisms by which infections could plausibly cause NHL and our growing molecular understanding of this malignancy, this field of research deserves continued attention.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, 6120 Executive Boulevard, EPS 7076, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. engelse@exchange.nih.gov

    Source

    MeSH

    Deltaretrovirus
    HIV
    Hepacivirus
    Herpesvirus 4, Human
    Herpesvirus 8, Human
    Human T-lymphotropic virus 1
    Humans
    Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    17337646

    Citation

    Engels, Eric A.. "Infectious Agents as Causes of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma." Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, vol. 16, no. 3, 2007, pp. 401-4.
    Engels EA. Infectious agents as causes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16(3):401-4.
    Engels, E. A. (2007). Infectious agents as causes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 16(3), pp. 401-4.
    Engels EA. Infectious Agents as Causes of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16(3):401-4. PubMed PMID: 17337646.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Infectious agents as causes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. A1 - Engels,Eric A, Y1 - 2007/03/02/ PY - 2007/3/6/pubmed PY - 2007/5/4/medline PY - 2007/3/6/entrez SP - 401 EP - 4 JF - Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology JO - Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. VL - 16 IS - 3 N2 - Among exposures presently viewed as possible etiologic factors in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), infections are close to being regarded as established causes. Infectious agents causing NHL can be classified, according to mechanism, into three broad groups. First, some viruses can directly transform lymphocytes. Lymphocyte-transforming viruses include Epstein Barr virus (linked to Burkitt's lymphoma, NHLs in immunosuppressed individuals, and extranodal natural killer/T-cell NHL), human herpesvirus 8 (primary effusion lymphoma), and human T lymphotropic virus type I (adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma). Second, human immunodeficiency virus is unique in causing profound depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes, leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and an associated high risk for some NHL subtypes. Third, recent evidence suggests that some infections increase NHL risk through chronic immune stimulation. These infections include hepatitis C virus as well as certain bacteria that cause chronic site-specific inflammation and seem to increase risk for localized mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue NHLs. Establishing that an infectious agent causes NHL depends on showing that the agent is present in persons with NHL as well as laboratory experiments elucidating the mechanisms involved. Only epidemiologic studies can provide evidence that infection is actually a risk factor by showing that infection is more frequent in NHL cases than in controls. Given the range of mechanisms by which infections could plausibly cause NHL and our growing molecular understanding of this malignancy, this field of research deserves continued attention. SN - 1055-9965 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17337646/full_citation L2 - http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17337646 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -