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Illusions of force perception: the role of sensori-motor predictions, visual information, and motor errors.
J Neurophysiol. 2007 May; 97(5):3305-13.JN

Abstract

Internal predictions influence the perception of force. When we support an object with one hand and lift it up with the other, we expect the force to disappear from the first, postural hand. In a virtual reality system, we violated this prediction by maintaining the force on the postural hand, whereas the object was still seen and felt to be lifted by the lifting hand. In this situation, participants perceived an illusionary increase in force on the postural hand, which was, in reality, constant. We test three possible mechanisms of how force perception may be influenced in this context. First, we showed that part of the illusion can be linked to a sensorimotor prediction--the predicted sensory consequences based on an efference copy of the lifting action. The illusion is reduced when the object is lifted by an external force. We also showed that the illusion changes on a trial-by-trial basis, paralleling the fast adaptation of the postural response. Second, motor errors that arise from a miscalibrated forward model do not contribute to the illusion; the illusion was unchanged even when we prevented motor errors by supporting the postural hand. Finally, visual information signaling the removal of the object is sufficient to elicit part of the illusion. These results argue that both sensorimotor predictions and visual object information, but not motor errors, influence force perception.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Psychology, University of Wales, Bangor, Adeilad Brigantia, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2AS, UK. j.diedrichsen@bangor.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17344369

Citation

Diedrichsen, Jörn, et al. "Illusions of Force Perception: the Role of Sensori-motor Predictions, Visual Information, and Motor Errors." Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 97, no. 5, 2007, pp. 3305-13.
Diedrichsen J, Verstynen T, Hon A, et al. Illusions of force perception: the role of sensori-motor predictions, visual information, and motor errors. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97(5):3305-13.
Diedrichsen, J., Verstynen, T., Hon, A., Zhang, Y., & Ivry, R. B. (2007). Illusions of force perception: the role of sensori-motor predictions, visual information, and motor errors. Journal of Neurophysiology, 97(5), 3305-13.
Diedrichsen J, et al. Illusions of Force Perception: the Role of Sensori-motor Predictions, Visual Information, and Motor Errors. J Neurophysiol. 2007;97(5):3305-13. PubMed PMID: 17344369.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Illusions of force perception: the role of sensori-motor predictions, visual information, and motor errors. AU - Diedrichsen,Jörn, AU - Verstynen,Timothy, AU - Hon,Andrew, AU - Zhang,Yi, AU - Ivry,Richard B, Y1 - 2007/03/07/ PY - 2007/3/9/pubmed PY - 2007/7/18/medline PY - 2007/3/9/entrez SP - 3305 EP - 13 JF - Journal of neurophysiology JO - J Neurophysiol VL - 97 IS - 5 N2 - Internal predictions influence the perception of force. When we support an object with one hand and lift it up with the other, we expect the force to disappear from the first, postural hand. In a virtual reality system, we violated this prediction by maintaining the force on the postural hand, whereas the object was still seen and felt to be lifted by the lifting hand. In this situation, participants perceived an illusionary increase in force on the postural hand, which was, in reality, constant. We test three possible mechanisms of how force perception may be influenced in this context. First, we showed that part of the illusion can be linked to a sensorimotor prediction--the predicted sensory consequences based on an efference copy of the lifting action. The illusion is reduced when the object is lifted by an external force. We also showed that the illusion changes on a trial-by-trial basis, paralleling the fast adaptation of the postural response. Second, motor errors that arise from a miscalibrated forward model do not contribute to the illusion; the illusion was unchanged even when we prevented motor errors by supporting the postural hand. Finally, visual information signaling the removal of the object is sufficient to elicit part of the illusion. These results argue that both sensorimotor predictions and visual object information, but not motor errors, influence force perception. SN - 0022-3077 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17344369/Illusions_of_force_perception:_the_role_of_sensori_motor_predictions_visual_information_and_motor_errors_ L2 - https://journals.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.01076.2006?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -