Congenital cervical cysts, sinuses and fistulae.Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2007 Feb; 40(1):161-76, vii-viii.OC
Congenital cervical anomalies are important to consider in the differential of head and neck masses in children and adults. These lesions can present as palpable cystic masses, infected masses, draining sinuses, or fistulae. Thyroglossal duct cysts are most common, followed by branchial cleft anomalies, dermoid cysts, and more rarely median cervical clefts. Other topics discussed include median ectopic thyroid, cervical teratomas, and branchiootorenal syndrome. Appropriate diagnosis and management of these lesions requires a complete understanding of their embryology and anatomy. Correct diagnosis, resolution of infectious issues before definitive therapy, and complete surgical excision are essential to prevent recurrence.