Bioavailability of starch in various wheat-based bread products: evaluation of metabolic responses in healthy subjects and rate and extent of in vitro starch digestion.Am J Clin Nutr. 1992 Feb; 55(2):420-9.AJ
Glucose and insulin responses to bread products were evaluated in healthy subjects. Also studied were the rate of in vitro starch digestion and the content of in vitro resistant starch (RS). Three white-wheat-bread (WWB) products varying in crust-crumb ratio and monoglyceride addition, three bread products with a high soluble fiber content (HSFB), and two coarse-wheat breads (CB) were included. The metabolic responses to WWBs were in general higher than those to CB and HSFB products. The most prominent reduction in metabolic responses was noted with the CBs with intact kernels and the HSFBs with oat bran. The starch in these products was also more slowly released from a dialysis tubing after enzyme incubation of chewed samples. The RS content ranged from 0 to 1.7 g/100 g starch. HSFBs and the CB with intact kernels showed a higher satiety score than did the WWBs immediately after the test meal.