Estradiol loaded PLGA nanoparticles for oral administration: effect of polymer molecular weight and copolymer composition on release behavior in vitro and in vivo.J Control Release. 2007 May 14; 119(1):77-85.JC
The present investigation was aimed at optimization of estradiol loaded PLGA nanoparticulate formulations resulting in improved oral bioavailability and sustained release of estradiol by varying the molecular weight and copolymer composition of PLGA. Nanoparticles were prepared following emulsion-diffusion-evaporation method employing didodecyldimethyl ammonium bromide (DMAB) as stabilizer. The effect of polymer molecular weight and copolymer composition on particle properties and release behavior (in vitro and in vivo) has been reported. Drug release in vitro decreased with increase in molecular weight and lactide content of PLGA. Zero order release was obtained with low molecular weight (14,500 and 45,000 Da) PLGA, while high molecular weight (85,000 and 213,000 Da) and different copolymer compositions followed square root of time (Higuchi's pattern) dependent release. The bioavailability of estradiol from nanoparticles was assessed in male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats at a dose of 1 mg estradiol/rat. The in vivo performance of the nanoparticles was found to be dependent on the particle size, polymer molecular weight and copolymer composition. The C(max) of drug in the plasma was dependent on the polymer molecular weight and composition while particle size was found to influence the duration of release, suggesting smaller is better. The histopathological examination revealed absence of any inflammatory response with the formulations prepared of low/high molecular weight or high lactide content polymers for the studied period. Together, these results indicate that nanoparticulate formulations are ideal carriers for oral administration of estradiol having great potential to address the dose related issues of estradiol.