Tungiasis and myiasis.Clin Dermatol. 2007 Mar-Apr; 25(2):158-64.CD
Tungiasis and myiasis are common ectoparasitic infestations that occur in developing countries in the tropics, particularly where poverty and poor standards of basic hygiene exist. The growth in international travel to and from these regions has led to an increase in the presentation of these conditions in nonendemic countries. Despite recent progress in the treatment and prevention of tungiasis and myiasis, diagnosis can present a challenge to those unfamiliar with these conditions, especially when they present in nonendemic countries. Tungiasis is caused by the penetration of the female sand flea, Tunga penetrans, into the epidermis of the host. Myiasis is a parasitic infection of the skin and mucous membranes in which the larvae of Diptera insects penetrate healthy or altered skin depending on the species. Infestations are usually self-limited and present few complications. Social neglect and inadequate health behavior in economically depressed urban neighborhoods, however, may lead to secondary infections and complications.