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Endocannabinoids and the regulation of their levels in health and disease.
Curr Opin Lipidol. 2007 Apr; 18(2):129-40.CO

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW

Endocannabinoids are defined as endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors, that is, of the two G-protein-coupled receptors for the Cannabis psychoactive principle Delta-tetra-hydrocannabinol. Two such endogenous mediators have been most thoroughly studied so far: anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Here we review the mechanisms for the regulation of their levels under physiological and pathological conditions, and recent findings on their role in disease.

RECENT FINDINGS

It is becoming increasingly clear that, although both anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol are produced and degraded 'on demand', the levels of these two compounds appear to be regulated in different, and sometimes even opposing, ways, often using redundant molecular mechanisms. Alterations of endocannabinoid levels have been found in both animal models of pain, neurological and neurodegenerative states, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory conditions, and in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and bioptic samples from patients with various diseases.

SUMMARY

Endocannabinoid levels appear to be transiently elevated as an adaptive reaction to re-establish normal homeostasis when this is acutely and pathologically perturbed. In some chronic conditions, however, this system also contributes to the progress or symptoms of the disorder. As a consequence, new therapeutic drugs are being designed from both stimulants and blockers of endocannabinoid action.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Endocannabinoid Research Group, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pozzuoli, Italy. vdimarzo@icmib.na.cnr.itNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17353660

Citation

Di Marzo, Vincenzo, and Stefania Petrosino. "Endocannabinoids and the Regulation of Their Levels in Health and Disease." Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 18, no. 2, 2007, pp. 129-40.
Di Marzo V, Petrosino S. Endocannabinoids and the regulation of their levels in health and disease. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2007;18(2):129-40.
Di Marzo, V., & Petrosino, S. (2007). Endocannabinoids and the regulation of their levels in health and disease. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 18(2), 129-40.
Di Marzo V, Petrosino S. Endocannabinoids and the Regulation of Their Levels in Health and Disease. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2007;18(2):129-40. PubMed PMID: 17353660.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Endocannabinoids and the regulation of their levels in health and disease. AU - Di Marzo,Vincenzo, AU - Petrosino,Stefania, PY - 2007/3/14/pubmed PY - 2007/6/7/medline PY - 2007/3/14/entrez SP - 129 EP - 40 JF - Current opinion in lipidology JO - Curr. Opin. Lipidol. VL - 18 IS - 2 N2 - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endocannabinoids are defined as endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors, that is, of the two G-protein-coupled receptors for the Cannabis psychoactive principle Delta-tetra-hydrocannabinol. Two such endogenous mediators have been most thoroughly studied so far: anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Here we review the mechanisms for the regulation of their levels under physiological and pathological conditions, and recent findings on their role in disease. RECENT FINDINGS: It is becoming increasingly clear that, although both anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol are produced and degraded 'on demand', the levels of these two compounds appear to be regulated in different, and sometimes even opposing, ways, often using redundant molecular mechanisms. Alterations of endocannabinoid levels have been found in both animal models of pain, neurological and neurodegenerative states, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory conditions, and in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and bioptic samples from patients with various diseases. SUMMARY: Endocannabinoid levels appear to be transiently elevated as an adaptive reaction to re-establish normal homeostasis when this is acutely and pathologically perturbed. In some chronic conditions, however, this system also contributes to the progress or symptoms of the disorder. As a consequence, new therapeutic drugs are being designed from both stimulants and blockers of endocannabinoid action. SN - 0957-9672 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17353660/Endocannabinoids_and_the_regulation_of_their_levels_in_health_and_disease_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOL.0b013e32803dbdec DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -