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Evolution and the latitudinal diversity gradient: speciation, extinction and biogeography.
Ecol Lett. 2007 Apr; 10(4):315-31.EL

Abstract

A latitudinal gradient in biodiversity has existed since before the time of the dinosaurs, yet how and why this gradient arose remains unresolved. Here we review two major hypotheses for the origin of the latitudinal diversity gradient. The time and area hypothesis holds that tropical climates are older and historically larger, allowing more opportunity for diversification. This hypothesis is supported by observations that temperate taxa are often younger than, and nested within, tropical taxa, and that diversity is positively correlated with the age and area of geographical regions. The diversification rate hypothesis holds that tropical regions diversify faster due to higher rates of speciation (caused by increased opportunities for the evolution of reproductive isolation, or faster molecular evolution, or the increased importance of biotic interactions), or due to lower extinction rates. There is phylogenetic evidence for higher rates of diversification in tropical clades, and palaeontological data demonstrate higher rates of origination for tropical taxa, but mixed evidence for latitudinal differences in extinction rates. Studies of latitudinal variation in incipient speciation also suggest faster speciation in the tropics. Distinguishing the roles of history, speciation and extinction in the origin of the latitudinal gradient represents a major challenge to future research.

Authors+Show Affiliations

W.K. Kellogg Biological Station and Department of Zoology, Michigan State University, Hickory Corners, MI 49060, USA. mittelbach@kbs.msu.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17355570

Citation

Mittelbach, Gary G., et al. "Evolution and the Latitudinal Diversity Gradient: Speciation, Extinction and Biogeography." Ecology Letters, vol. 10, no. 4, 2007, pp. 315-31.
Mittelbach GG, Schemske DW, Cornell HV, et al. Evolution and the latitudinal diversity gradient: speciation, extinction and biogeography. Ecol Lett. 2007;10(4):315-31.
Mittelbach, G. G., Schemske, D. W., Cornell, H. V., Allen, A. P., Brown, J. M., Bush, M. B., Harrison, S. P., Hurlbert, A. H., Knowlton, N., Lessios, H. A., McCain, C. M., McCune, A. R., McDade, L. A., McPeek, M. A., Near, T. J., Price, T. D., Ricklefs, R. E., Roy, K., Sax, D. F., ... Turelli, M. (2007). Evolution and the latitudinal diversity gradient: speciation, extinction and biogeography. Ecology Letters, 10(4), 315-31.
Mittelbach GG, et al. Evolution and the Latitudinal Diversity Gradient: Speciation, Extinction and Biogeography. Ecol Lett. 2007;10(4):315-31. PubMed PMID: 17355570.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evolution and the latitudinal diversity gradient: speciation, extinction and biogeography. AU - Mittelbach,Gary G, AU - Schemske,Douglas W, AU - Cornell,Howard V, AU - Allen,Andrew P, AU - Brown,Jonathan M, AU - Bush,Mark B, AU - Harrison,Susan P, AU - Hurlbert,Allen H, AU - Knowlton,Nancy, AU - Lessios,Harilaos A, AU - McCain,Christy M, AU - McCune,Amy R, AU - McDade,Lucinda A, AU - McPeek,Mark A, AU - Near,Thomas J, AU - Price,Trevor D, AU - Ricklefs,Robert E, AU - Roy,Kaustuv, AU - Sax,Dov F, AU - Schluter,Dolph, AU - Sobel,James M, AU - Turelli,Michael, PY - 2007/3/16/pubmed PY - 2007/4/12/medline PY - 2007/3/16/entrez SP - 315 EP - 31 JF - Ecology letters JO - Ecol. Lett. VL - 10 IS - 4 N2 - A latitudinal gradient in biodiversity has existed since before the time of the dinosaurs, yet how and why this gradient arose remains unresolved. Here we review two major hypotheses for the origin of the latitudinal diversity gradient. The time and area hypothesis holds that tropical climates are older and historically larger, allowing more opportunity for diversification. This hypothesis is supported by observations that temperate taxa are often younger than, and nested within, tropical taxa, and that diversity is positively correlated with the age and area of geographical regions. The diversification rate hypothesis holds that tropical regions diversify faster due to higher rates of speciation (caused by increased opportunities for the evolution of reproductive isolation, or faster molecular evolution, or the increased importance of biotic interactions), or due to lower extinction rates. There is phylogenetic evidence for higher rates of diversification in tropical clades, and palaeontological data demonstrate higher rates of origination for tropical taxa, but mixed evidence for latitudinal differences in extinction rates. Studies of latitudinal variation in incipient speciation also suggest faster speciation in the tropics. Distinguishing the roles of history, speciation and extinction in the origin of the latitudinal gradient represents a major challenge to future research. SN - 1461-0248 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17355570/Evolution_and_the_latitudinal_diversity_gradient:_speciation_extinction_and_biogeography_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01020.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -