Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis--United States, 2005.
MMWR Surveill Summ. 2007 Mar 16; 56(3):1-24.MS

Abstract

PROBLEM/CONDITION

In the United States, acute viral hepatitis most frequently is caused by infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV). These unrelated viruses are transmitted through different routes and have different epidemiologic profiles. Safe and effective vaccines have been available for hepatitis B since 1981 and, for hepatitis A, since 1995.

REPORTING PERIOD

Cases in 2005, the most recent for which data are available, are compared with those from previous years.

DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM

Cases of acute viral hepatitis are reported to CDC via the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

RESULTS

Since 1995, the incidence of reported acute hepatitis A has declined by 88%, to the lowest rate ever recorded (2005: 1.5/100,000 population). Declines were greater among children and in states where routine vaccination of children was recommended beginning in 1999, compared with the remaining states. The proportion of cases among adults has increased. Since 1990, reported acute hepatitis B incidence has declined by 79%, to the lowest rate ever recorded (2005: 1.8/100,000 population). Declines occurred among all age groups but were greatest among children aged <15 years. Since the late 1980s, acute hepatitis C incidence also has declined. In 2005, as in previous years, the majority of these cases occurred among adults, and injection-drug use was the most common risk factor.

INTERPRETATION

The greater declines in hepatitis A rates among the states and age groups included in the 1999 recommendations for routine childhood hepatitis A vaccination suggest that this strategy reduced rates. Universal hepatitis B vaccination of children has resulted in substantially lower rates among younger age groups. Higher rates of hepatitis B continue among adults, particularly males aged 25-44 years, which emphasize the need to vaccinate adults at risk for HBV infection. The decline in hepatitis C incidence is primarily attributed to a decrease in incidence among injection-drug users (IDUs). The reasons for this decrease are multifactorial and are probably related to risk-reduction practices among IDUs.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

The recent expansion of recommendations for routine hepatitis A vaccination to include all children in the United States aged 12-23 months is expected to further reduce hepatitis A rates. Ongoing hepatitis B vaccination programs will ultimately eliminate domestic HBV transmission, and increased vaccination of adults who have risk factors will accelerate progress toward elimination. Prevention of hepatitis C relies on identifying and counseling uninfected persons at risk for hepatitis C (e.g., IDUs) regarding ways to protect themselves from infection.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Viral Hepatitis, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (proposed), 1600 Clifton Rd., N.E., MS G-37, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. acw5@cdc.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17363893

Citation

Wasley, Annemarie, et al. "Surveillance for Acute Viral hepatitis--United States, 2005." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries (Washington, D.C. : 2002), vol. 56, no. 3, 2007, pp. 1-24.
Wasley A, Miller JT, Finelli L, et al. Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis--United States, 2005. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2007;56(3):1-24.
Wasley, A., Miller, J. T., & Finelli, L. (2007). Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis--United States, 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries (Washington, D.C. : 2002), 56(3), 1-24.
Wasley A, et al. Surveillance for Acute Viral hepatitis--United States, 2005. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2007 Mar 16;56(3):1-24. PubMed PMID: 17363893.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis--United States, 2005. AU - Wasley,Annemarie, AU - Miller,Jeremy T, AU - Finelli,Lyn, AU - ,, PY - 2007/3/17/pubmed PY - 2007/3/21/medline PY - 2007/3/17/entrez SP - 1 EP - 24 JF - Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Surveillance summaries (Washington, D.C. : 2002) JO - MMWR Surveill Summ VL - 56 IS - 3 N2 - PROBLEM/CONDITION: In the United States, acute viral hepatitis most frequently is caused by infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV). These unrelated viruses are transmitted through different routes and have different epidemiologic profiles. Safe and effective vaccines have been available for hepatitis B since 1981 and, for hepatitis A, since 1995. REPORTING PERIOD: Cases in 2005, the most recent for which data are available, are compared with those from previous years. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM: Cases of acute viral hepatitis are reported to CDC via the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. RESULTS: Since 1995, the incidence of reported acute hepatitis A has declined by 88%, to the lowest rate ever recorded (2005: 1.5/100,000 population). Declines were greater among children and in states where routine vaccination of children was recommended beginning in 1999, compared with the remaining states. The proportion of cases among adults has increased. Since 1990, reported acute hepatitis B incidence has declined by 79%, to the lowest rate ever recorded (2005: 1.8/100,000 population). Declines occurred among all age groups but were greatest among children aged <15 years. Since the late 1980s, acute hepatitis C incidence also has declined. In 2005, as in previous years, the majority of these cases occurred among adults, and injection-drug use was the most common risk factor. INTERPRETATION: The greater declines in hepatitis A rates among the states and age groups included in the 1999 recommendations for routine childhood hepatitis A vaccination suggest that this strategy reduced rates. Universal hepatitis B vaccination of children has resulted in substantially lower rates among younger age groups. Higher rates of hepatitis B continue among adults, particularly males aged 25-44 years, which emphasize the need to vaccinate adults at risk for HBV infection. The decline in hepatitis C incidence is primarily attributed to a decrease in incidence among injection-drug users (IDUs). The reasons for this decrease are multifactorial and are probably related to risk-reduction practices among IDUs. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS: The recent expansion of recommendations for routine hepatitis A vaccination to include all children in the United States aged 12-23 months is expected to further reduce hepatitis A rates. Ongoing hepatitis B vaccination programs will ultimately eliminate domestic HBV transmission, and increased vaccination of adults who have risk factors will accelerate progress toward elimination. Prevention of hepatitis C relies on identifying and counseling uninfected persons at risk for hepatitis C (e.g., IDUs) regarding ways to protect themselves from infection. SN - 1545-8636 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17363893/Surveillance_for_acute_viral_hepatitis__United_States_2005_ L2 - https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5603a1.htm DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -