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MDMA, methamphetamine and their combination: possible lessons for party drug users from recent preclinical research.
Drug Alcohol Rev 2007; 26(1):9-15DA

Abstract

The substituted amphetamines 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy') and methamphetamine (METH, 'ice', 'speed') are increasingly popular drugs amongst party-drug users. Studies with humans have investigated the acute and possible long-term adverse effects of these drugs, yet outcomes of such studies are often ambiguous due to a variety of confounding factors. Studies employing animal models have value in determining the acute and long-term effects of MDMA and METH on brain and behaviour. Self-administration studies show that intravenous METH is a particularly potent reinforcer in rats and other species. In contrast, MDMA appears to have powerful effects in enhancing social behaviour in laboratory animals. Brief exposure to MDMA or METH may produce long-term reductions in dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline in the brain and alterations in the density of various receptor and transporter proteins. However it is still unclear, particularly in the case of MDMA, whether this reflects a 'neurotoxic' effect of the drug. Lasting alterations in social behaviour, anxiety, depressive symptoms and memory have been demonstrated in laboratory rats given MDMA or METH and this matches long-term changes reported in some human studies. Recent laboratory studies suggest that MDMA/METH combinations may produce greater adverse neurochemical and behavioural effects than either drug alone. This is of some concern given recent evidence that party drug users may be frequently exposed to this combination of drugs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Psychology, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. kclemens@psy.unsw.edu.auNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17364831

Citation

Clemens, Kelly J., et al. "MDMA, Methamphetamine and Their Combination: Possible Lessons for Party Drug Users From Recent Preclinical Research." Drug and Alcohol Review, vol. 26, no. 1, 2007, pp. 9-15.
Clemens KJ, McGregor IS, Hunt GE, et al. MDMA, methamphetamine and their combination: possible lessons for party drug users from recent preclinical research. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2007;26(1):9-15.
Clemens, K. J., McGregor, I. S., Hunt, G. E., & Cornish, J. L. (2007). MDMA, methamphetamine and their combination: possible lessons for party drug users from recent preclinical research. Drug and Alcohol Review, 26(1), pp. 9-15.
Clemens KJ, et al. MDMA, Methamphetamine and Their Combination: Possible Lessons for Party Drug Users From Recent Preclinical Research. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2007;26(1):9-15. PubMed PMID: 17364831.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - MDMA, methamphetamine and their combination: possible lessons for party drug users from recent preclinical research. AU - Clemens,Kelly J, AU - McGregor,Iain S, AU - Hunt,Glenn E, AU - Cornish,Jennifer L, PY - 2007/3/17/pubmed PY - 2007/5/31/medline PY - 2007/3/17/entrez SP - 9 EP - 15 JF - Drug and alcohol review JO - Drug Alcohol Rev VL - 26 IS - 1 N2 - The substituted amphetamines 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy') and methamphetamine (METH, 'ice', 'speed') are increasingly popular drugs amongst party-drug users. Studies with humans have investigated the acute and possible long-term adverse effects of these drugs, yet outcomes of such studies are often ambiguous due to a variety of confounding factors. Studies employing animal models have value in determining the acute and long-term effects of MDMA and METH on brain and behaviour. Self-administration studies show that intravenous METH is a particularly potent reinforcer in rats and other species. In contrast, MDMA appears to have powerful effects in enhancing social behaviour in laboratory animals. Brief exposure to MDMA or METH may produce long-term reductions in dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline in the brain and alterations in the density of various receptor and transporter proteins. However it is still unclear, particularly in the case of MDMA, whether this reflects a 'neurotoxic' effect of the drug. Lasting alterations in social behaviour, anxiety, depressive symptoms and memory have been demonstrated in laboratory rats given MDMA or METH and this matches long-term changes reported in some human studies. Recent laboratory studies suggest that MDMA/METH combinations may produce greater adverse neurochemical and behavioural effects than either drug alone. This is of some concern given recent evidence that party drug users may be frequently exposed to this combination of drugs. SN - 0959-5236 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17364831/MDMA_methamphetamine_and_their_combination:_possible_lessons_for_party_drug_users_from_recent_preclinical_research_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1080/09595230601036945 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -