Effect of trisodium citrate on rheological and physical properties and microstructure of yogurt.J Dairy Sci. 2007 Apr; 90(4):1644-52.JD
The effect of trisodium citrate (TSC) on the rheological and physical properties and microstructure of yogurt was investigated. Reconstituted skim milk was heated at 85 degrees C for 30 min, and various concentrations (5 to 40 mM) of TSC were added to the milk, which was then readjusted to pH 6.50. Milk was inoculated with 2% yogurt culture and incubated at 42 degrees C until pH was 4.6. Acid-base titration was used to determine changes in the state of colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) in milk. Total and soluble Ca contents of the milk were determined. The storage modulus (G') and loss tangent (LT) values of yogurts were measured as a function of pH using dynamic oscillatory rheology. Large deformation rheological properties were also measured. Microstructure of yogurt was observed using confocal scanning laser microscopy, and whey separation was also determined. Addition of TSC reduced casein-bound Ca and increased the solubilization of CCP. The G' value of gels significantly increased with addition of low levels of TSC, and highest G' values were observed in samples with 10 to 20 mM TSC; higher (> 20 mM) TSC concentrations resulted in a large decrease in G' values. The LT of yogurts increased after gelation to attain a maximum at pH approximately 5.1, but no maximum was observed in yogurts made with > or = 25 mM of TSC because CCP was completely dissolved prior to gelation. Partial removal of CCP resulted in an increase in the LT value at pH 5.1. At low TSC levels, the removal of CCP crosslinks may have facilitated greater rearrangement and molecular mobility of the micelle structure, which may have helped to increase G' and LT values of gels by increasing the formation of crosslinks between strands. At high TSC concentrations the micelles were completely disrupted and CCP crosslinks were dissolved, both of which resulted in very weak yogurt gels with large pores obvious in confocal micrographs. Gelation pH and yield stress significantly decreased with the use of high TSC levels. Lowest whey separation levels were observed in yogurt made with 20 mM TSC, and whey separation greatly increased at > 25 mM TSC. In conclusion, low concentrations of TSC improved several important yogurt characteristics, whereas the use of levels that disrupted casein micelles resulted in poor gel properties. We also conclude that the LT maximum observed in yogurts made from heated milk is due to the presence of CCP because the modification of the CCP content altered this peak and the removal of CCP eliminates this feature in the LT profiles.