Antioxidant content and free radical scavenging ability of fresh red pummelo [Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck] juice and freeze-dried products.J Agric Food Chem 2007; 55(8):2867-72JA
The antioxidative phytochemicals in various fruits and vegetables are widely recognized for their role in scavenging free radicals, which are involved in the etiology of many chronic diseases. Colored fruits are especially considered a quality trait that correlates with their nutritional values and health benefits. The specific aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidants in the juice and freeze-dried flesh and peel of red pummelo and their ability to scavenge free radicals and compare them with those in white pummelo juice. The total phenolic content of red pummelo juice extracted by methanol (8.3 mg/mL) was found to be significantly higher than that of white pummelo juice (5.6 mg/mL). The carotenoid content of red pummelo juice was also significantly higher than that in white pummelo juice. The contents of vitamin C and delta-tocopherol in red pummelo juice were 472 and 0.35 mug/mL, respectively. The ability of the antioxidants found in red pummelo juice to scavenge radicals were found by methanol extraction to approximate that of BHA and vitamin C with a rapid rate in a kinetic model. The ability of methanol extracts of freeze-dried peel and flesh from red pummelo to scavenge these radicals was 20-40% that of BHA and vitamin C effects. Fresh red pummelo juice is an excellent source of antioxidant compounds and exhibited great efficiency in scavenging different forms of free radicals including DPPH, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide radicals.