[Prevention and treatment of esophageal variceal bleeding].Orv Hetil. 2006 Dec 24; 147(51):2455-63.OH
Portal hypertension leads to special complications, which tend to progression. Increase in the size of varices, and variceal-wall tension may cause life-threatening bleeding, which affects mortality. Therefore the reduction of portal hypertension is essential. For prevention of the first bleeding (primary prevention) beta-blockers must be given. For estimation of the effectiveness of this drug, patients should be followed. In case of inefficiency or intolerability variceal ligation or sclerotherapy can prevent bleeding. In case of acute variceal hemorrhage, hemodynamic stabilization of the patient is the first step. Transfusion if necessary, somatostatin or terlipressin should be given for reduction of portal hypertension and also endoscopic treatment of varices is mandatory. Early antibiotic administration for prophylaxis or treatment of infections is associated with a significant reduction in mortality. Up to now in absence of exact data, correction of haemostasis is suggested by the administration of fresh frozen plasma. For secondary prevention i. e. to prevent repeated bleeding beta-blockers (probably with nitrates) can be used. If necessary, drug administration should be complemented with varix ligation or sclerotherapy. In case of inefficiency TIPS implantation or liver transplantation must be considered.