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Metabolic effects of two years of exenatide treatment on diabetes, obesity, and hepatic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes: an interim analysis of data from the open-label, uncontrolled extension of three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.
Clin Ther. 2007 Jan; 29(1):139-53.CT

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Exenatide, an incretin mimetic for adjunctive treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), reduced glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and weight in 30-week placebo-controlled trials. Some patients were followed up in open-label extensions to provide 'real-world' exenatide clinical experience.

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to examine the metabolic effects of 2 years of exenatide treatment in patients with T2DM.

METHODS

For this interim analysis, data were pooled from patients who completed 1 of three 30-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials and their open-label extensions. In the initial trials, subjects were randomized to BID 5-microg exenatide, 10-microg exenatide, or placebo for 30 weeks. All subjects who enrolled in the extension phase then received 5-pg exenatide BID for 4 weeks, followed by open-label treatment with 10-pg exenatide BID. Subjects continued their existing metformin and/or sulfonylurea regimens. Analyses were conducted on data from all subjects who had the opportunity to achieve 2 years of exenatide exposure, irrespective of their treatment arm in the 30-week placebo-controlled trials.

RESULTS

A total of 974 patients entered the open-label, extension phase of the trial. Two hundred eighty-three subjects (mean [SD] age, 57 [10] years; mean [SD] weight, 100[19] kg; sex, 63% male; mean [SD] body mass index, 34 [6] kg/m(2); mean [SD] HbA(1c), 8.3% [1.0%]) completed 2 years of exenatide treatment. Reductions in mean (SE) HbA(1c) from baseline to week 30 (-0.9% [0.1%]) were sustained through 2 years (-1.1% [0.1%]; P < 0.05 vs baseline), with 50% of the population achieving HbA(1c) < or = 7%. At week 30, exenatide was associated with a significant reduction in mean (SD) body weight from baseline (-2.1 [0.2] kg), with progressive reductions after 2 years (-4.7 [0.3] kg; P < 0.001 vs baseline). Patients with normal baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (132/283 [47%]; normal: female < or =19 IU/L; male < or =30 IU/L) had no significant ALT change. However, patients with elevated ALT at baseline (151/283 [53%]) had a mean (SEM) reduction of ALT (-11 [1] IU/L from baseline 38 [1] IU/1; P < 0.05) and 39% achieved normal ALT by week 104. Patients with elevated ALT at baseline lost significantly more weight than patients with normal ALT at baseline (P = 0.04). However, weight change was minimally correlated with baseline ALT (r = -0.09) or ALT change (r = 0.31). Also, homeostasis model assessment of the beta-cell function (HOMA-B), blood pressure, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) all improved. The most frequently reported adverse event was mild-to-moderate nausea.

CONCLUSIONS

In these patients with T2DM, adjunctive exenatide treatment for 2 years was generally well tolerated and resulted in a sustained reduction of HbA(1c), progressive reduction in weight, and improvements in HOMA-B, blood pressure, and the hepatic injury biomarkers, AST and ALT.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17379054

Citation

Buse, John B., et al. "Metabolic Effects of Two Years of Exenatide Treatment On Diabetes, Obesity, and Hepatic Biomarkers in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: an Interim Analysis of Data From the Open-label, Uncontrolled Extension of Three Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trials." Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 29, no. 1, 2007, pp. 139-53.
Buse JB, Klonoff DC, Nielsen LL, et al. Metabolic effects of two years of exenatide treatment on diabetes, obesity, and hepatic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes: an interim analysis of data from the open-label, uncontrolled extension of three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Clin Ther. 2007;29(1):139-53.
Buse, J. B., Klonoff, D. C., Nielsen, L. L., Guan, X., Bowlus, C. L., Holcombe, J. H., Maggs, D. G., & Wintle, M. E. (2007). Metabolic effects of two years of exenatide treatment on diabetes, obesity, and hepatic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes: an interim analysis of data from the open-label, uncontrolled extension of three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Clinical Therapeutics, 29(1), 139-53.
Buse JB, et al. Metabolic Effects of Two Years of Exenatide Treatment On Diabetes, Obesity, and Hepatic Biomarkers in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: an Interim Analysis of Data From the Open-label, Uncontrolled Extension of Three Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trials. Clin Ther. 2007;29(1):139-53. PubMed PMID: 17379054.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Metabolic effects of two years of exenatide treatment on diabetes, obesity, and hepatic biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes: an interim analysis of data from the open-label, uncontrolled extension of three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. AU - Buse,John B, AU - Klonoff,David C, AU - Nielsen,Loretta L, AU - Guan,Xuesong, AU - Bowlus,Christopher L, AU - Holcombe,John H, AU - Maggs,David G, AU - Wintle,Matthew E, PY - 2006/11/29/accepted PY - 2007/3/24/pubmed PY - 2007/8/8/medline PY - 2007/3/24/entrez SP - 139 EP - 53 JF - Clinical therapeutics JO - Clin Ther VL - 29 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Exenatide, an incretin mimetic for adjunctive treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), reduced glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and weight in 30-week placebo-controlled trials. Some patients were followed up in open-label extensions to provide 'real-world' exenatide clinical experience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the metabolic effects of 2 years of exenatide treatment in patients with T2DM. METHODS: For this interim analysis, data were pooled from patients who completed 1 of three 30-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials and their open-label extensions. In the initial trials, subjects were randomized to BID 5-microg exenatide, 10-microg exenatide, or placebo for 30 weeks. All subjects who enrolled in the extension phase then received 5-pg exenatide BID for 4 weeks, followed by open-label treatment with 10-pg exenatide BID. Subjects continued their existing metformin and/or sulfonylurea regimens. Analyses were conducted on data from all subjects who had the opportunity to achieve 2 years of exenatide exposure, irrespective of their treatment arm in the 30-week placebo-controlled trials. RESULTS: A total of 974 patients entered the open-label, extension phase of the trial. Two hundred eighty-three subjects (mean [SD] age, 57 [10] years; mean [SD] weight, 100[19] kg; sex, 63% male; mean [SD] body mass index, 34 [6] kg/m(2); mean [SD] HbA(1c), 8.3% [1.0%]) completed 2 years of exenatide treatment. Reductions in mean (SE) HbA(1c) from baseline to week 30 (-0.9% [0.1%]) were sustained through 2 years (-1.1% [0.1%]; P < 0.05 vs baseline), with 50% of the population achieving HbA(1c) < or = 7%. At week 30, exenatide was associated with a significant reduction in mean (SD) body weight from baseline (-2.1 [0.2] kg), with progressive reductions after 2 years (-4.7 [0.3] kg; P < 0.001 vs baseline). Patients with normal baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (132/283 [47%]; normal: female < or =19 IU/L; male < or =30 IU/L) had no significant ALT change. However, patients with elevated ALT at baseline (151/283 [53%]) had a mean (SEM) reduction of ALT (-11 [1] IU/L from baseline 38 [1] IU/1; P < 0.05) and 39% achieved normal ALT by week 104. Patients with elevated ALT at baseline lost significantly more weight than patients with normal ALT at baseline (P = 0.04). However, weight change was minimally correlated with baseline ALT (r = -0.09) or ALT change (r = 0.31). Also, homeostasis model assessment of the beta-cell function (HOMA-B), blood pressure, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) all improved. The most frequently reported adverse event was mild-to-moderate nausea. CONCLUSIONS: In these patients with T2DM, adjunctive exenatide treatment for 2 years was generally well tolerated and resulted in a sustained reduction of HbA(1c), progressive reduction in weight, and improvements in HOMA-B, blood pressure, and the hepatic injury biomarkers, AST and ALT. SN - 0149-2918 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17379054/Metabolic_effects_of_two_years_of_exenatide_treatment_on_diabetes_obesity_and_hepatic_biomarkers_in_patients_with_type_2_diabetes:_an_interim_analysis_of_data_from_the_open_label_uncontrolled_extension_of_three_double_blind_placebo_controlled_trials_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0149-2918(07)00029-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -