Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated NO production by a novel synthetic compound CYL-4d in RAW 264.7 macrophages involving the blockade of MEK4/JNK/AP-1 pathway.Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Jun 01; 73(11):1796-806.BP
In the present study, a novel synthetic compound 4-(2-(cyclohex-2-enylidene)hydrazinyl)quinolin-2(1H)-one (CYL-4d) was found to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production without affecting cell viability or enzyme activity of expressed inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. CYL-4d exhibited parallel inhibition of LPS-induced expression of iNOS protein, iNOS mRNA and iNOS promoter activity in the same concentration range. LPS-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding, AP-1-dependent reporter gene activity and c-Jun nuclear translocation were all markedly inhibited by CYL-4d with similar efficacy, whereas CYL-4d produced a weak inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) DNA binding, NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene activity and p65 nuclear translocation without affecting inhibitory factor-kappa B alpha (I kappa B alpha) degradation. CYL-4d had no effect on the LPS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and its upstream activator MAPK kinase (MEK) 3, whereas it significantly attenuated the phosphorylation of c-Jun, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and its upstream activator MEK4 in a parallel concentration-dependent manner. Other Toll-like receptors (TLRs) ligands (peptidoglycans, double-stranded RNA, and oligonucleotide containing unmethylated CpG motifs)-induced iNOS protein expression were also inhibited by CYL-4d. Furthermore, the NO production from BV-2 microglial cells as well as rat alveolar macrophages in response to LPS was diminished by CYL-4d. These results indicate that the blockade of NO production by CYL-4d in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells is attributed mainly to interference in the MEK4-JNK-AP-1 signaling pathway. CYL-4d inhibition of NO production is not restricted to TLR4 activation and immortalized macrophage-like cells.