Involvement of L-arginine-nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in the antidepressant-like effect of venlafaxine in mice.Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007 May 09; 31(4):921-5.PN
The involvement of L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway in the antidepressant action of venlafaxine (dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) was investigated in mice. The antidepressant activity was assessed in forced swim test (FST) behavioral paradigm. Total immobility time was registered during the period of 6 min. Venlafaxine produced dose-dependent (4-16 mg/kg, i.p.) reduction in immobility period. The antidepressant-like effect of venlafaxine (8 mg/kg, i.p.) was prevented by pretreatment with l-arginine (750 mg/kg, i.p.) [substrate for nitric oxide synthase (NOS)]. Pretreatment of mice with 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) (25 mg/kg, i.p.) [a specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor] produced potentiation of the action of subeffective dose of venlafaxine (2 mg/kg, i.p.). In addition, treatment of mice with methylene blue (10 mg/kg, i.p.) [direct inhibitor of both nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)] potentiated the effect of venlafaxine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) in the FST. Furthermore, the reduction in the immobility time elicited by venlafaxine (8 mg/kg, i.p.) was also inhibited by pretreatment with sildenafil (5 mg/kg, i.p.) [phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor]. The various modulators used in the study did not produce any changes in locomotor activity per se. The results demonstrated that the antidepressant-like effect of venlafaxine in the FST involved an interaction with the L-arginine-NO-cGMP pathway.