Improving the sensitivity of the determination of ceftiofur by capillary electrophoresis in environmental water samples: in-line solid phase extraction and sample stacking techniques.Anal Chim Acta. 2007 Mar 28; 587(2):208-15.AC
This paper describes two different approaches for increasing the sensitivity for the analysis of ceftiofur by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Two different techniques based on the introduction of an enlarged volume of sample, namely large volume sample stacking (LVSS) and in-line solid phase extraction (SPE) were studied and compared. LVSS allowed the on-column electrophoretic preconcentration of ceftiofur without modification of the separation capillary. In-line SPE-CE was developed by using a home-made microcartridge that was filled with a reversed-phase sorbent (C(18)). The microcartridge was coupled in-line near the inlet of the separation capillary. LVSS and in-line SPE-CE allowed automated operation and improved sensitivity for the analysis of ceftiofur with respect to conventional CE. When environmental water samples were analyzed, an additional pretreatment step based on off-line SPE was necessary in both cases to further decrease the detection limits. In terms of sensitivity for the determination of ceftiofur in river water samples, the combination of off-line SPE with in-line SPE-CE was found the most sensitive with a detection limit of 10 ng L(-1), whereas the method based on the use of off-line SPE with LVSS presented a detection limit of 100 ng L(-1).