Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and risk factors in persons aged 60 and older: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.J Am Geriatr Soc 2007; 55(4):583-9JA
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The study objectives were to examine the prevalence of PAD and associated risk factors.
A cross-sectional nationally representative health examination survey.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.
Data from 3,947 men and women aged 60 and older who received a lower extremity examination.
The main outcome was PAD, defined as an ankle-brachial blood pressure index of less than 0.9 in either leg.
In older U.S. adults, PAD prevalence was 12.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 10.9-13.5%). PAD prevalence increased with age. PAD prevalence was 7.0% (95% CI = 5.6-8.4%) for those aged 60 to 69, 12.5% (95% CI = 10.4-14.6%), and 23.2% (95% CI = 19.8-26.7%) for those aged 70 to 79 and 80 and older. Age-adjusted estimates show that non-Hispanic black men and women and Mexican-American women had a higher prevalence of PAD than non-Hispanic white men and women (19.2%, 95% CI = 13.7-24.6%; 19.3%, 95% CI = 13.3-25.2%; and 15.6%, 95% CI = 12.7-18.6%, respectively). The results of the fully adjusted model show that current smoking (OR = 5.48, 95% CI = 3.60-8.35), previous smoking (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.39-2.69), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.12-2.91), low kidney function (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.58-4.56), mildly decreased kidney function (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.22-2.38), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein greater than 3.0 mg/L (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.24-5.85), treated but not controlled hypertension (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.40-2.72), and untreated hypertension (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.13-2.50) were all significantly associated with prevalent PAD.
PAD prevalence increases with age and is associated with treatable risk factors for cardiovascular disease.