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Nine-year incidence of open-angle glaucoma in the Barbados Eye Studies.

Abstract

PURPOSE

To determine the 9-year incidence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in African-descent participants of the Barbados Eye Studies.

DESIGN

Nine-year cohort study with 81% to 85% participation.

PARTICIPANTS

Three thousand two hundred twenty-two persons without definite OAG at baseline, at risk of developing OAG at follow-up.

METHODS

The standardized protocol included automated perimetry and various ophthalmic measurements, with a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination for those referred. Fundus photographs were evaluated independently by masked graders. Incidence was estimated by the product-limit approach. Relative risk (RR) ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were based on Cox regression models with discrete time.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE

Nine-year incidence of definite OAG, based on the development of visual field defects and glaucomatous optic neuropathy, with ophthalmologic confirmation.

RESULTS

The 9-year incidence of definite OAG was 4.4% (95% CI, 3.7%-5.2%), or an average of 0.5%/year, based on 125 new cases. Incidence increased greatly with age, from 2.2% at ages 40 to 49 years to 7.9% at ages 70 years or older, and tended to be higher in men than women (4.9% vs. 4.1%; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.9-1.8). More than half (53%) of new cases were undetected, and of these, one third had intraocular pressure of 21 mmHg or less. When 141 persons developing suspected/probable OAG were considered, the total incidence was 9.4% (8.4%-10.6%), averaging approximately 1%/year, also increasing with age, and significantly higher in men than women (10.7% vs. 8.6%; RR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.02-1.67).

CONCLUSIONS

These new data provide a measure of the long-term risk of OAG in an African-descent population, which is markedly higher than in persons of European ancestry. Results confirm the increased risk with age and in men. The incidence data fill a gap in our understanding of OAG risk and have implications for public health policy and planning; they also will allow the study of factors related to the risk of OAG development.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8036, USA. cleske@notes.cc.sunysb.edu

    , , , , , ,

    Source

    Ophthalmology 114:6 2007 Jun pg 1058-64

    MeSH

    Adult
    African Continental Ancestry Group
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Barbados
    Female
    Glaucoma, Open-Angle
    Humans
    Incidence
    Intraocular Pressure
    Longitudinal Studies
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Risk Factors
    Tonometry, Ocular
    Vision Disorders
    Visual Field Tests
    Visual Fields

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    17397925

    Citation

    Leske, M Cristina, et al. "Nine-year Incidence of Open-angle Glaucoma in the Barbados Eye Studies." Ophthalmology, vol. 114, no. 6, 2007, pp. 1058-64.
    Leske MC, Wu SY, Honkanen R, et al. Nine-year incidence of open-angle glaucoma in the Barbados Eye Studies. Ophthalmology. 2007;114(6):1058-64.
    Leske, M. C., Wu, S. Y., Honkanen, R., Nemesure, B., Schachat, A., Hyman, L., & Hennis, A. (2007). Nine-year incidence of open-angle glaucoma in the Barbados Eye Studies. Ophthalmology, 114(6), pp. 1058-64.
    Leske MC, et al. Nine-year Incidence of Open-angle Glaucoma in the Barbados Eye Studies. Ophthalmology. 2007;114(6):1058-64. PubMed PMID: 17397925.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Nine-year incidence of open-angle glaucoma in the Barbados Eye Studies. AU - Leske,M Cristina, AU - Wu,S Y, AU - Honkanen,R, AU - Nemesure,B, AU - Schachat,A, AU - Hyman,L, AU - Hennis,A, AU - ,, Y1 - 2007/03/30/ PY - 2006/07/06/received PY - 2006/08/28/revised PY - 2006/08/29/accepted PY - 2007/4/3/pubmed PY - 2007/6/20/medline PY - 2007/4/3/entrez SP - 1058 EP - 64 JF - Ophthalmology JO - Ophthalmology VL - 114 IS - 6 N2 - PURPOSE: To determine the 9-year incidence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in African-descent participants of the Barbados Eye Studies. DESIGN: Nine-year cohort study with 81% to 85% participation. PARTICIPANTS: Three thousand two hundred twenty-two persons without definite OAG at baseline, at risk of developing OAG at follow-up. METHODS: The standardized protocol included automated perimetry and various ophthalmic measurements, with a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination for those referred. Fundus photographs were evaluated independently by masked graders. Incidence was estimated by the product-limit approach. Relative risk (RR) ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were based on Cox regression models with discrete time. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Nine-year incidence of definite OAG, based on the development of visual field defects and glaucomatous optic neuropathy, with ophthalmologic confirmation. RESULTS: The 9-year incidence of definite OAG was 4.4% (95% CI, 3.7%-5.2%), or an average of 0.5%/year, based on 125 new cases. Incidence increased greatly with age, from 2.2% at ages 40 to 49 years to 7.9% at ages 70 years or older, and tended to be higher in men than women (4.9% vs. 4.1%; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.9-1.8). More than half (53%) of new cases were undetected, and of these, one third had intraocular pressure of 21 mmHg or less. When 141 persons developing suspected/probable OAG were considered, the total incidence was 9.4% (8.4%-10.6%), averaging approximately 1%/year, also increasing with age, and significantly higher in men than women (10.7% vs. 8.6%; RR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.02-1.67). CONCLUSIONS: These new data provide a measure of the long-term risk of OAG in an African-descent population, which is markedly higher than in persons of European ancestry. Results confirm the increased risk with age and in men. The incidence data fill a gap in our understanding of OAG risk and have implications for public health policy and planning; they also will allow the study of factors related to the risk of OAG development. SN - 1549-4713 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17397925/Nine_year_incidence_of_open_angle_glaucoma_in_the_Barbados_Eye_Studies_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0161-6420(06)01321-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -