Hematological and plasma biochemical responses of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) to intraperitoneal injection of extracted microcystins with the possible mechanisms of anemia.Toxicon. 2007 Jun 15; 49(8):1150-7.T
Alterations in hematological indices such as decreases in blood cell counts (RBC), hematocrit (Ht) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations are key symptoms of anemia. However, few experiments were conducted to examine changes in hematological indices of fish exposed to microcystins that are believed to be fatal to circulatory systems of vertebrates. An acute toxicological experiment was designed to study hematological changes of crucian carp injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with extracted microcystins at two doses, 50 and 200 microg MC-LReq kg(-1) body weight. After being i.p. injected with microcystins, the fish exhibited behavioral abnormity. There were significant decreases in RBC in the high-dose group, and in Ht and Hb concentrations in both dose groups, while erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) significantly increased, indicating the appearance of normocytic anemia. There were no prominent changes in the three red cell indices, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CR) in both dose groups suggest the occurrence of kidney impairment. Alteration in blood indices was reversible at the low dose group. Conclusively, anemia induced by kidney impairment was a key factor to cause abnormity of swimming behaviors and high mortality of crucian carp.